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Title: Intervertebral disk degeneration : the microenvironment and tissue engineering strategies
Authors: Dou, Y
Sun, X
Ma, X
Zhao, X 
Yang, Q
Issue Date: Jul-2021
Source: Frontiers in bioengineering and biotechnology, July 2021, v. 9, 592118
Abstract: Intervertebral disk degeneration (IVDD) is a leading cause of disability. The degeneration is inevitable, and the mechanisms are complex. Current therapeutic strategies mainly focus on the relief of symptoms, not the intrinsic regeneration of the intervertebral disk (IVD). Tissue engineering is a promising strategy for IVDD due to its ability to restore a healthy microenvironment and promote IVD regeneration. This review briefly summarizes the IVD anatomy and composition and then sets out elements of the microenvironment and the interactions. We rationalized different scaffolds based on tissue engineering strategies used recently. To fulfill the complete restoration of a healthy IVD microenvironment, we propose that various tissue engineering strategies should be combined and customized to create personalized therapeutic strategies for each individual.
Keywords: Disk herniation
Intervertebral disk degeneration
Low back pain
Tissue engineering
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Journal: Frontiers in bioengineering and biotechnology 
EISSN: 2296-4185
DOI: 10.3389/fbioe.2021.592118
Rights: © 2021 Dou, Sun, Ma, Zhao and Yang. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) ( The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
The following publication Dou Y, Sun X, Ma X, Zhao X and Yang Q (2021) Intervertebral Disk Degeneration: The Microenvironment and Tissue Engineering Strategies. Front. Bioeng. Biotechnol. 9:592118 is available at
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