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Title: An elastic demand model for locating electric vehicle charging stations
Authors: Ouyang, X 
Xu, M 
Zhou, B
Issue Date: Mar-2022
Source: Networks and spatial economics, Mar. 2022, v. 22, no. 1, p. 1-31
Abstract: In this study, we aim to optimally locate multiple types of charging stations, e.g., fast-charging stations and slow-charging stations, for maximizing the covered flows under a limited budget while taking drivers’ partial charging behavior and nonlinear demand elasticity into account. This problem is first formulated as a mixed-integer nonlinear programming model. Instead of generating paths and charging patterns, we develop a compact formulation to model the partial charging logic. The proposed model is then approximated and reformulated by a mixed-integer linear programming model by piecewise linear approximation. To improve the computational efficiency, we employ a refined formulation using an efficient Gray code method, which reduces the number of constraints and binary auxiliary variables in the formulation of the piecewise linear approximate function effectively. The ε-optimal solution to the proposed problem can be therefore obtained by state-of-the-art MIP solvers. Finally, a case study based on the highway network of Zhejiang Province of China is conducted to assess the model performance and analyze the impact of the budget on flow coverage and optimal station selection.
Keywords: Charging station location
Partial charging
Nonlinear elastic demand
Piecewise linear approximation
Gray code
Publisher: Springer
Journal: Networks and spatial economics 
ISSN: 1566-113X
EISSN: 1572-9427
DOI: 10.1007/s11067-021-09546-5
Rights: © The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2021
This version of the article has been accepted for publication, after peer review (when applicable) and is subject to Springer Nature’s AM terms of use (, but is not the Version of Record and does not reflect post-acceptance improvements, or any corrections. The Version of Record is available online at:
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