Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
PIRA download icon_1.1View/Download Full Text
Title: Irregular-mapped protograph LDPC-coded modulation : a bandwidth-efficient solution for 6G-enabled mobile networks
Authors: Fang, Y
Bu, Y
Chen, P
Lau, FCM 
Otaibi, SA
Issue Date: Feb-2023
Source: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems, Feb. 2023, v. 24, no. 2, p. 2060-2073
Abstract: The huge amount of data produced in the 6G networks not only brings new challenges to the reliability and efficiency of mobile devices but also drives rapid development of new storage techniques. With the benefits of fast access speed and high reliability, NAND flash memory has become a promising storage solution for the 6G networks. In this paper, we investigate a protograph-coded bit-interleaved coded modulation with iterative detection and decoding (BICM-ID) utilizing irregular mapping (IM) in the NAND flash-memory systems. First, we propose an enhanced protograph-based extrinsic information transfer (EPEXIT) algorithm to facilitate the analysis of protograph codes in the IM-BICM-ID systems. With the use of EPEXIT algorithm, a simple design method is conceived for the construction of a family of high-rate protograph codes, called irregular-mapped accumulate-repeat-accumulate (IMARA) codes, which possess excellent decoding thresholds and linear-minimum-distance-growth property. Furthermore, motivated by the voltage-region iterative gain characteristics of IM-BICM-ID systems, a novel read-voltage optimization scheme is developed to acquire accurate read-voltage levels, thus minimizing the decoding thresholds (in dB) of protograph codes. Analyses and simulations indicate that the proposed IMARA-aided IM-BICM-ID scheme and read-voltage optimization scheme remarkably improve the convergence and decoding performance of flash-memory systems. Thus, the proposed protograph-coded IM-BICM-ID can be viewed as a reliable and efficient storage solution for the new-generation mobile networks, such as Internet of Vehicles.
Keywords: 6G networks
Bit-Interleaved Coded Modulation (BICM)
Internet of Vehicles
Massive data storage
Protograph LDPC codes
Irregular mapping (IM)
Publisher: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Journal: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems 
ISSN: 1524-9050
EISSN: 1558-0016
DOI: 10.1109/TITS.2021.3122994
Rights: © 2021 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, including reprinting/republishing this material for Publishedertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works.
The following publication Y. Fang, Y. Bu, P. Chen, F. C. M. Lau and S. A. Otaibi, "Irregular-Mapped Protograph LDPC-Coded Modulation: A Bandwidth-Efficient Solution for 6G-Enabled Mobile Networks," in IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 2060-2073, Feb. 2023 is available at
Appears in Collections:Journal/Magazine Article

Files in This Item:
File Description SizeFormat 
Fang_Irregular_Mapped_Protograph.pdfPre-Published version1.49 MBAdobe PDFView/Open
Open Access Information
Status open access
File Version Final Accepted Manuscript
View full-text via PolyU eLinks SFX Query
Show full item record

Page views

Last Week
Last month
Citations as of Sep 24, 2023


Citations as of Sep 24, 2023


Citations as of Sep 28, 2023


Citations as of Sep 28, 2023

Google ScholarTM



Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.