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Title: Observer-based coordinated control for blended braking system with actuator delay
Authors: Li, W
Li, H
Huang, C 
Xu, K
Sun, T
Du, H
Issue Date: 2021
Source: Actuators, 2021, v. 10, no. 8, 193
Abstract: The coordinated control of a blended braking system is always a difficult task. In particu-lar, blended braking control becomes more challenging when the braking actuator has an input time-delay and some states of the braking system cannot be measured. In order to improve the tracking performance, a coordinated control system was designed based on the input time-delay and state observation for a blended braking system comprising a motor braking system and friction braking system. The coordinated control consists of three parts: Sliding mode control, a multi-input single-output observer, and time-delay estimation-based Smith Predictor control. The sliding mode control is used to calculate the total command braking torque according to the desired braking performance and vehicle states. The multi-input single-output observer is used to simultaneously esti-mate the input time-delay and output braking torque of the friction braking system. With time-delay estimation-based Smith Predictor control, the friction braking system is able to effectively track the command braking torque of the friction braking system. The tracking of command braking torque is realized through the coordinated control of the motor braking system and friction braking system. In order to validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, numerical simulations on a quarter-vehicle braking model were performed.
Keywords: Friction braking torque observer
Sliding mode control
Smith Predictor
Time-delay observer
Publisher: Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI)
Journal: Actuators 
ISSN: 2076-0825
DOI: 10.3390/act10080193
Rights: © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (
The following publication Li, W.; Li, H.; Huang, C.; Xu, K.; Sun, T.; Du, H. Observer-Based Coordinated Control for Blended Braking System with Actuator Delay. Actuators 2021, 10, 193 is available at
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