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Title: Sustainable smoke extraction system for atrium : a numerical study
Authors: Ivanov, ML
Peng, W
Wang, Q 
Chow, WK 
Issue Date: Jul-2021
Source: Sustainability, July 2021, v. 13, no. 13, 7406
Abstract: Smoke extraction systems, either static with natural ventilation, or dynamic with mechanical ventilation are required to keep smoke layer at high levels in many tall atria. It is observed that a design fire with high heat release rate (HRR) is commonly used for designing natural vents, but a low HRR is used for mechanical ventilation system. This will not produce a sustainable environment. There are no internationally agreed on design guides to determine the HRR in the design fire for different extraction systems and scenarios. This issue will be studied using a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)-based software, the Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) version 6.7.1. Simulations on natural smoke filling, static and dynamic smoke extractions were carried out in a big example atrium. CFD-FDS predictions were compared with previous full-scale burning tests. Results confirmed that static smoke extraction is a good option for big fires, and a dynamic system is best for small fires. A sustainable new hybrid design combining the advantages of static and dynamic systems is proposed, which could result in a lower smoke temperature and higher smoke layer interface height, indicating a better extraction design.
Keywords: Atrium
Mechanical ventilation
Natural vent
Numerical simulation
Smoke extraction system
Publisher: Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI)
Journal: Sustainability 
EISSN: 2071-1050
DOI: 10.3390/su13137406
Rights: © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (
The following publication Ivanov, M.L.; Peng, W.; Wang, Q.; Chow, W.K. Sustainable Smoke Extraction System for Atrium: A Numerical Study. Sustainability 2021, 13, 7406 is available at
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