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Title: Biochar composites : emerging trends, field successes and sustainability implications
Authors: Wang, L
Ok, YS
Tsang, DCW 
Alessi, DS
Rinklebe, J
Mašek, O
Bolan, NS
Hou, D
Issue Date: Jan-2022
Source: Soil use and management, Jan. 2022, v. 38, no. 1, p. 14-38
Abstract: Engineered biochars are promising candidates in a wide range of environmental applications, including soil fertility improvement, contaminant immobilization, wastewater treatment and in situ carbon sequestration. This review provides a systematic classification of these novel biochar composites and identifies the promising future trends in composite research and application. It is proposed that metals, minerals, layered double hydroxides, carbonaceous nanomaterials and microorganisms enhance the performances of biochars via distinct mechanisms. In this review, four novel trends are identified and assessed critically. Firstly, facile synthesis methods, in particular ball milling and co-pyrolysis, have emerged as popular composite fabrication strategies that are suitable for large-scale applications. Secondly, biochar modification with green materials, such as natural clay minerals and microorganisms, align well with the on-going green and sustainable remediation (GSR) movement. Furthermore, new applications in soil health improvement and climate change mitigation support the realization of United Nation's Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Finally, the importance of field studies is getting more attention, since evidence of field success is critically needed before large-scale applications.
Keywords: Climate change
Field trial
Life on lands
Soil quality
Sustainable remediation
Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell
Journal: Soil use and management 
ISSN: 0266-0032
EISSN: 1475-2743
DOI: 10.1111/sum.12731
Rights: © 2021 THE AUTHORS. Published by Elsevier BV on behalf of Faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams University. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (
The following publication Wang, L., Ok, Y. S., Tsang, D. C. W., Alessi, D. S., Rinklebe, J., Mašek, O., . . . Hou, D. (2022). Biochar composites: Emerging trends, field successes and sustainability implications. Soil use and Management, 38(1), 14-38 is available at
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