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Title: Sensitivity and stability of functional vision tests in detecting subtle changes under multiple simulated conditions
Authors: Chen, Z
Zhuang, Y
Xu, Z
Chan, LYL 
Zhang, S
Ye, Q
Feng, L
Lu, ZL
Li, J
Issue Date: Jun-2021
Source: Translational vision science & technology, June 2021, v. 10, no. 7, 7
Abstract: Purpose: To explore whether subtle changes in visual quality can be detected using different measures of visual function against the quick contrast sensitivity function test (quick CSF).
Methods: Sixty participants, aged 17 to 34 years, were enrolled. Participants’ vision was degraded by 0.25 D undercorrection (0.25 D), 60% neutral density filter brightness reduction (60% ND), and 0.8 Bangerter foil optical diffusion (0.8BAN). Visual function tests including visual acuity and contrast sensitivity (CSV-1000E and quick CSF) were measured with participant’s best-corrected vision and under simulated visual degradation conditions. Test sensitivities in detecting differences were compared.
Results: Statistically significant visual acuity degradation was observed in the 0.8BAN condition only (Pcorrected < 0.001). With CSV-1000E and outliers removed, significant CS degradation was observed in all spatial frequencies, area under log CSF (AULCSF) in the 0.8BAN condition (Pcorrected < 0.001 for all), medium and high spatial frequencies and AULCSF in the 60%ND condition (Pcorrected, 6cpd = 0.002, Pcorrected, 12cpd = 0.005, Pcorrected, 18cpd = 0.001, Pcorrected, AULCSF < 0.001) and the 0.25 D condition (Pcorrected, 6cpd = 0.011, Pcorrected, 12cpd =0.013, Pcorrected, 18cpd =0.015, Pcorrected, AULCSF <0.001).With the quick CSF, significant CS degradation was observed in all simulated visual conditions in all spatial frequencies, cutoff frequency and AULCSF (Pcorrected < 0.001 for all). Test-retest reliability of the quick CSF method was high; coefficient of repeatability ranged from 0.14 to 0.18 logCS.
Conclusions: Compared with visual acuity and chart-based CS tests, the quick CSF method provided more reliable and sensitive measures to detect small visual changes.
Translational Relevance: The quick CSF method can provide sensitive and reliable measures to monitor disease progression and assess treatment outcomes.
Keywords: Contrast sensitivity
Quick CSF
Subtle changes of vision
Visual acuity
Publisher: Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology
Journal: Translational vision science & technology 
EISSN: 2164-2591
DOI: 10.1167/tvst.10.7.7
Rights: Copyright 2021 The Authors
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License (
The following publication Chen Z, Zhuang Y, Xu Z, Chan LYL, Zhang S, Ye Q, Feng L, Lu Z-L, Li J. Sensitivity and stability of functional vision tests in detecting subtle changes under multiple simulated conditions. Transl Vis Sci Technol. 2021;10(7):7 is available at
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