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Title: Promoting fruit and vegetable intake in parents : a cluster randomised controlled trial
Authors: Sun, Y
Fung, SSW 
Man, PKW
Wan, ANT
Stewart, S
Lam, TH
Ho, SY
Issue Date: May-2021
Source: International journal of environmental research and public health, May 2021, v. 18, no. 10, 5206
Abstract: We conducted a cluster randomised controlled trial of parents in 56 primary schools and community service centres (clusters) to evaluate the effectiveness of a single-session workshop on promoting more fruit and vegetable (FV) intake. A total of 803 parents were randomised to the FV intervention arm (16 clusters, n = 197), the more appreciation control arm (19 clusters, n = 270), or the less criticism control arm (21 clusters, n = 336). The FV intake of the FV arm was compared with that of the combined more appreciation or less criticism (MALC) arm. Both arms received a 2 h workshop: (i) the FV arm on increasing FV consumption and related food literacy; (ii) the MALC arm on increasing appreciation or reducing criticism of children. Primary outcomes were FV consumption per day in the past week assessed at baseline, 2-weeks, and 6-weeks. Secondary outcomes were behavioural determinants proposed by the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA), including outcome expectancies, self-efficacy, intention, and planning behaviour. The FV arm had a greater increase in FV consumption than the MALC arm, with large effect sizes (d: 0.97–1.08) and improvements in behavioural determinants with small effect sizes at all time points (d: 0.19–0.43). Our study was the first population-based randomised controlled trial to show that a brief, single 2 h HAPA-based workshop was effective in promoting fruit and vegetable intake in parents.
Keywords: Behaviour change
Dietary intakes
Fruit and vegetable
Primary prevention
Randomised controlled trial
Publisher: Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI)
Journal: International journal of environmental research and public health 
ISSN: 1661-7827
EISSN: 1660-4601
DOI: 10.3390/ijerph18105206
Rights: © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (
The following publication Sun, Y.; Fung, S.S.W.; Man, P.K.W.; Wan, A.N.T.; Stewart, S.; Lam, T.H.; Ho, S.Y. Promoting Fruit and Vegetable Intake in Parents: A Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 5206 is available at
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