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Title: A competitive analysis of port of Hong Kong : from external to internal
Authors: Liu, Z
Yang, D 
Ng, YNE 
Issue Date: 2020
Source: Journal of shipping and trade, 2020, v. 5, 7, p. 1-17
Abstract: This paper aims to analyse the competitive equilibrium of Hong Kong international port after the cooperation among terminal operators. To achieve our research objective, a comprehensive analysis framework is proposed. We assume that the port services provided by Shenzhen and Hong Kong have heterogeneity, thus apply Cournot price competition model to understand the external competition. We find that the heterogeneity level can affect the demand of Hong Kong international port. For different heterogeneity levels, different competitive equilibriums among terminal operators of Hong Kong are discussed. We further apply Edgeworth model and Stackelberg Leadership Model to describe the internal competition of Hong Kong international port. Based on analysis, some recommendations are provided to the terminal operators of Hong Kong.
Keywords: Terminal/port competition
Service heterogeneity
Cournot price competition
Edgeworth model
Stackelberg leadership model
Publisher: SpringerOpen
Journal: Journal of shipping and trade 
EISSN: 2364-4575
DOI: 10.1186/s41072-020-00062-2
Rights: © The Author(s). 2020 Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit
The following publication Liu, Z., Yang, D. & Ng, Y.N.E. A competitive analysis of port of Hong Kong: from external to internal. J. shipp. trd. 5, 7 (2020). is available at
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