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Title: Effect of aerobic exercise on plasma biomarkers of pain in women with primary dysmenorrhea : a controlled non-randomized pilot trial
Authors: Kannan, P 
Cheung, KK 
Chan, SC 
Lam, KY 
Law, YX 
Ng, SK 
Siu, HY 
Wong, SC 
Issue Date: 2020
Source: Biomarkers journal, 2020, v. 6, no. 2, 67, p. 1-9
Abstract: Objectives: To (1) evaluate preliminary effects of aerobic exercise on progesterone, prostaglandin metabolites and pro-inflammatory cytokines in women with primary dysmenorrhea, (2) assess the feasibility of methodological procedures and obtain preliminary data (effect size) to estimate the sample size for a future randomized controlled trial.
Methods: Twenty women aged 18-29 years were divided into two groups (highintensity aerobic-exercise group and no-exercise control group) in a 1:1 ratio. Women assigned to the exercise group performed high-intensity treadmillbased aerobic exercise for three days a week, at 70-85% of maximum heart rate for 30 minutes for 4 weeks. The control group did not receive trial intervention but provided blood for estimation of plasma variables. Blood plasma levels of progesterone, prostaglandin (PG) metabolites, F2 alpha [KDPGF2α]) and PGE2 (KDPGE2), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were measured at 4-weeks post-intervention.
Results: There was an increase in progesterone levels (d=0.36) and decreases in KDPGF2α (d=0.35), KDPGE2 (d= 0.47), and TNF-α (d=0.33) from baseline to week 4 in the exercise group compared with the control group. Concerning feasibility outcomes, 90% of the required number of participants were recruited in 3-4 weeks and adherence to the intervention was 97%.
Conclusion: Study findings suggest that aerobic exercise may be effective for primary dysmenorrhea via its influence on progesterone and inflammatory pain mediators. The study methodology appears to be feasible for conducting a fullscale randomized controlled trial.
Keywords: Aerobic exercise
Primary dysmenorrhea
Publisher: iMedPub
Journal: Biomarkers journal 
EISSN: 2472-1646
DOI: 10.36648/2472-1646.6.2.67
Rights: © Copyright iMedPub.This article is available in:
© Under License of Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Licens
The following publication Kannan P, Cheung KK, Chi CS, Yan LK, Xi LY, et al. (2020) Effect of Aerobic Exercise on Plasma Biomarkers of Pain in Women with Primary Dysmenorrhea: A Controlled Non-randomized Pilot Trial. Biomark J. Vol. 6 No. 2: 67. is available at
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