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Title: Subjective Outcome Evaluation of a Positive Youth Development Program in Mainland China
Authors: Zhu, X 
Shek, DTL 
Issue Date: Mar-2021
Source: Research on social work practice, Mar. 2021, v. 31, no. 3, p. 285-297
Abstract: Objectives: This study validated a 36-item Subjective Outcome Evaluation Scale (SOES) and examined the effectiveness of a positive youth development (PYD) program entitled “Tin Ka Ping Positive Adolescent Training through Holistic Social Programs” (TKP P.A.T.H.S. Project) and implemented in mainland China in the 2016–2017 and 2017–2018 academic years. Methods: We collected data from 20,480 students from 30 secondary schools in mainland China on their views toward program quality, implementer quality, and program benefits based on the SOES. Results: The SOES possessed good factorial, convergent, discriminant, and concurrent validities as well as internal consistency. Besides, the student respondents were generally satisfied with the program quality, implementer quality, and program benefits. Consistent with our hypothesis, junior grade students had more positive perceptions than did senior grade students. Conclusion: Utilizing the client satisfaction approach, this study validated the SOES and highlighted the value of PYD programs exemplified by the TKP P.A.T.H.S. Program in a non-Western context.
Keywords: Adolescents
Client satisfaction approach
Mainland China
Positive youth development
Program evaluation
Publisher: SAGE Publications
Journal: Research on social work practice 
ISSN: 1049-7315
EISSN: 1552-7581
DOI: 10.1177/1049731520980802
Rights: © The Author(s) 2020
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 License ( which permits non-commercial use, reproduction and distribution of the work without further permission provided the original work is attributed as specified on the SAGE and Open Access pages (
The following publication Zhu, X., & Shek, D. T. L. (2021). Subjective Outcome Evaluation of a Positive Youth Development Program in Mainland China. Research on Social Work Practice, 31(3), 285–297 is available at
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