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Title: Brain decoding in multiple languages: Can cross-language brain decoding work
Authors: Xu, M
Li, D
Li, P 
Issue Date: Apr-2021
Source: Brain and language, Apr. 2021, v. 215, 104922
Abstract: The approach of cross-language brain decoding is to use models of brain decoding from one language to decode stimuli of another language. It has the potential to provide new insights into how our brain represents multiple languages. While it is possible to decode semantic information across different languages from neuroimaging data, the approach’s overall success remains to be tested and depends on a number of factors such as cross-language similarity, age of acquisition/proficiency levels, and depth of language processing. We expect to see continued progress in this domain, from a traditional focus on words and concrete concepts toward the use of naturalistic experimental tasks involving higher-level language processing (e.g., discourse processing). The approach can also be applied to understand how cross-modal, cross-cultural, and other nonlinguistic factors may influence neural representations of different languages. This article provides an overview of cross-language brain decoding with suggestions for future research directions.
Keywords: Cross-language brain decoding
Neural representation
Multivariate pattern analysis
Computational modeling
Publisher: Academic Press
Journal: Brain and language 
ISSN: 0093-934X
EISSN: 1090-2155
DOI: 10.1016/j.bandl.2021.104922
Rights: © 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc.
This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (
The following publication Xu, M., Li, D., & Li, P. (2021). Brain decoding in multiple languages: Can cross-language brain decoding work?. Brain and Language, 215, 104922 is available at
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