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Title: Validation of the Chinese non-pharmacological therapy experience scale in persons with intellectual disability
Authors: Ho, LYW 
Chin, KCW
Fung, CYY
Lai, CKY 
Issue Date: Jan-2019
Source: Nursing open, Jan. 2019, v. 7, no. 1, p. 390-397
Abstract: Aim: To validate the 4- and 7-point Chinese Non-pharmacological Therapy Experience Scales and test the psychometric properties of the scales on persons with intellectual disability.
Design: A validation study.
Methods: Sixty-seven persons with intellectual disability were recruited from six hostels or centres for persons with intellectual disability in Hong Kong. A total of 1,163 and 1,161 observations were collected by the trained observers with the 4-point and 7-point scales, respectively. The floor and ceiling effects, inter-rater reliability, internal consistency, responsiveness of both scales and the scale equivalence were examined.
Results: The Cronbach's alpha of the 4- and 7-point scales was .762 and .797, respectively. The correlation between the two scales was 0.906. The inter-rater reliability of the 4- and 7-point scales was 0.774 and 0.835, respectively. Neither scale had the floor or ceiling effects. The effect size of the 7-point scale was consistently higher than that of the 4-point scale.
Keywords: Horticultural therapy
Instrument development
Instrument responsiveness
Intellectual disability
Process evaluation
Reliability and validity
Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Journal: Nursing open 
EISSN: 2054-1058
DOI: 10.1002/nop2.398
Rights: © 2019 The Authors. Nursing Open published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution‐NonCommercial‐NoDerivs License (, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non‐commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.
The following publication Ho, L. Y. W., Chin, K. C. W., Fung, C. Y. Y., & Lai, C. K. Y. (2020). Validation of the Chinese Non‐pharmacological Therapy Experience Scale in persons with intellectual disability. Nursing Open, 7(1), 390-397 is available at
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