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Title: Ultrasonic characteristics and cellular properties of Anabaena gas vesicles
Authors: Yang, Y 
Qiu, Z 
Hou, X 
Sun, L 
Issue Date: Dec-2017
Source: Ultrasound in medicine and biology, Dec. 2017, v. 43, no. 12, p. 2862-2870
Abstract: Ultrasound imaging is a common modality in clinical examination and biomedical research, but has not played a significant role in molecular imaging for lack of an appropriate contrast agent. Recently, biogenic gas vesicles (GVs), naturally formed by cyanobacteria and haloarchaea, have exhibited great potential as an ultrasound molecular imaging probe with a much smaller size (∼100 nm) and improved imaging contrast. However, the basic acoustic and biological properties of GVs remain unclear, which hinders future application. Here, we studied the fundamental acoustic properties of a rod-shaped gas vesicle from Anabaena, a kind of cyanobacterium, including attenuation, oscillation resonance, and scattering, as well as biological behaviors (cellular internalization and cytotoxicity). We found that GVs have two resonance peaks (85 and 120 MHz). We also observed a significant non-linear effect and its pressure dependence as well. Ultrasound B-mode imaging reveals sufficient echogenicity of GVs for ultrasound imaging enhancement at high frequencies. Biological characterization also reveals endocytosis and non-toxicity.
Keywords: Acoustic characterization
Contrast agent
Gas vesicle
Molecular imaging
Resonance frequency
Scattering property
Publisher: Elsevier
Journal: Ultrasound in medicine and biology 
ISSN: 0301-5629
EISSN: 1879-291X
DOI: 10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2017.08.004
Rights: Copyright © 2017 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. All rights reserved.
© 2017. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license
The following publication Yang, Y., Qiu, Z., Hou, X., & Sun, L. (2017). Ultrasonic characteristics and cellular properties of Anabaena gas vesicles. Ultrasound in medicine & biology, 43(12), 2862-2870 is available at
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