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Title: Behavior of a movable electrode in piezo-response mode of an atomic force microscope
Authors: Xu, C
Woo, CH 
Shi, SQ 
Wang, Y 
Issue Date: 15-Jun-2004
Source: Journal of applied physics, 15 June 2004, v. 95, no. 12, p. 8431-8435
Abstract: The objective of this work was to understand the effect of the movable electrode (the tip of an atomic force microscope) on a piezoelectric-induced (PEI) image. Local polarization is induced on a lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin film using an atomic force microscope (AFM), by applying dc voltage between the movable electrode and the Pt bottom electrode. The polarized PZT film is then characterized by the AFM using a two-pass method, in which both the topography and PEI image are obtained. The surface morphology is recorded in the first pass under contact mode with a fixed setpoint. A PEI image is obtained in the second pass in piezo-response mode. In this mode, the sample surface is scanned by applying ac voltage between the AFM tip and the Pt bottom electrode at sample displacement. PEI images of various sample displacement, corresponding to different stress exerted by the tip on the sample surface, are obtained and analyzed using force–sample displacement curves. It is found that PEI images can be detected if the tip adheres to the sample. The asymmetry of the A cos θ signal is improved as the force changes from repulsive to attractive.
Keywords: Lead compounds
Piezoelectric materials
Piezoelectric thin films
Atomic force microscopy
Surface morphology
Publisher: American Institute of Physics
Journal: Journal of applied physics 
ISSN: 0021-8979
EISSN: 1089-7550
DOI: 10.1063/1.1739532
Rights: © 2004 American Institute of Physics. This article may be downloaded for personal use only. Any other use requires prior permission of the author and the American Institute of Physics. The following article appeared in C. H. Xu et al., J. Appl. Phys. 95, 8431 (2004) and may be found at
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