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Title: Determinants of activity and participation in preschoolers with developmental delay
Authors: Leung, GPK 
Chan, CCH 
Chung, RCK 
Pang, MYC 
Issue Date: Jan-2011
Source: Research in developmental disabilities, Jan. -Feb. 2011, v. 32, no. 1, p. 289-296
Abstract: According to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health model endorsed by the World Health Organization, activity (the execution of a task or action by an individual), and participation (involvement in a life situation) are important components in the assessment of health and functioning of an individual. The purpose of this study was to compare the activity performance and school participation of preschool children with developmental delay (DD) and age-matched typically developing children, and to identify the determinants of activity and participation in preschoolers with DD. Fifty-four children with DD (37 boys, 17 girls; mean age: 66 months) and 54 age-matched typically developing children (34 boys, 20 girls; mean age: 65 months) were recruited from the mainstream preschools with integrated program units. Activity and participation were evaluated using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) and School Function Assessment (SFA). Other factors that may influence activity and participation such as impairments in sensory, motor, and mental functioning, and other contextual factors (e.g. family income) were also measured. The DD group had significantly lower VABS (p< 0.001) and SFA (p< 0.001) scores than controls, indicating suboptimal activity and participation. Multiple regression analysis revealed that deficits in social and motor skills, and in inattention/hyperactivity, were significantly associated with activity and participation in children with DD, accounting for approximately 35-37% of the variance in the VABS and SFA scores (p< 0.001). In conclusion, deficits in social and motor functioning, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder-related symptoms, are important determinants of activity and participation in preschoolers with DD. One may consider targeting these specific areas to enhance activity and participation amongst these children.
Keywords: Children
Community participation
Developmental delay disorders
Publisher: Pergamon Press
Journal: Research in developmental disabilities 
ISSN: 0891-4222
EISSN: 1873-3379
DOI: 10.1016/j.ridd.2010.10.005
Rights: © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
© 2011. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license
The following publication Leung, G. P., Chan, C. C., Chung, R. C., & Pang, M. Y. (2011). Determinants of activity and participation in preschoolers with developmental delay. Research in developmental disabilities, 32(1), 289-296 is available at
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