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Title: Total flavonoids from Saussurea involucrata attenuate inflammation in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages via modulating p65, c-Jun, and IRF3 signaling pathways
Authors: Yan, LS
Wang, L
Cheng, BCY 
Ding, Y
Kong, J
Wang, QG
Fu, XQ
Zhang, SF
Luo, G
Zhang, Y
Issue Date: 2021
Source: Asian pacific journal of tropical biomedicine, 2021, v. 11, no. 6, p. 273-284
Asian pacific journal of tropical biomedicine, 2021, v. 11, no. 6, p. 273-284
Abstract: Objective: To investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of the total flavonoids from Saussurea involucrata on lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-stimulated murine RAW264.7 macrophages and explore its underlying mechanism of action.
Methods: Total flavonoids from Saussurea involucrata were extracted using chromatographic column method. Cell viability was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay. The production of nitric oxide was detected by Griess assay and the release of cytokines (IL-10 and TNF-alpha) and chemokines (MCP-1, MIP-1a, and CCL5/RANTES) was determined by ELISA to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of total flavonoids from Saussurea involucrata. Moreover, nuclear translocation of p65, c-Jun, and IRF3 was detected by immunofluorescence microscopy and Western blotting analysis was performed to determine the expression of related proteins.
Results: Total flavonoids extracted from Saussurea involucrata were 751.5 mg/g and the content of rutin was 506.5 mg/g. The production of inflammatory mediators including nitric oxide, cytokines, and chemokines was effectively inhibited by total flavonoids from Saussurea involucrata. Meanwhile, total flavonoids also suppressed the nuclear translocation of p65, c-Jun, and IRF3 in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. The LPS-induced expression of iNOS and COX-2 was remarkably reduced by treatment with total flavonoids from Saussurea involucrata. Moreover, total flavonoids decreased the expression levels of p-IKKa/beta, p-TBK1, p-p38, p-ERK, p-JNK, p-p65, p-c-Jun, and p-IRF3 in LPS-exposed RAW264.7 macrophages.
Conclusions: Total flavonoids from Saussurea involucrata potentially inhibit the secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators, which may be related to inhibition of p65, c-Jun, and IRF3 signaling pathways in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells.
Keywords: Saussurea involucrata
Cytokines
Proinflammatory
Macrophages
Flavonoids
Publisher: Wolters Kluwer - Medknow Publications and Media Pvt. Ltd.
Journal: Asian pacific journal of tropical biomedicine 
ISSN: 2221-1691
EISSN: 2588-9222
DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.314053
Rights: ©2021 Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine Produced by Wolters KluwerMedknow. All rights reserved.
This is an open access journal, and articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-ShareAlike 4.0 License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/), which allows others to remix, tweak, and build upon the work non-commercially, as long as appropriate credit is given and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms.
The following publication Yan LS, Wang L, Cheng BC, Ding Y, Kong J, Wang QG, et al. Total flavonoids from Saussurea involucrata attenuate inflammation in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages via modulating p65, c-Jun, and IRF3 signaling pathways. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2021; 11(6): 273-284 is available at https://www.doi.org/10.4103/2221-1691.314053
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