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Title: Tgf-β signaling : from tissue fibrosis to tumor microenvironment
Authors: Chung, JYF
Chan, MKK
Chan, ASW 
Tang, PCT
Leung, KT
To, KF
Lan, HY
Tang, PMK
Issue Date: Jul-2021
Source: International journal of molecular sciences, July 2021, v. 22, no. 14, 7575
Abstract: Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling triggers diverse biological actions in inflammatory diseases. In tissue fibrosis, it acts as a key pathogenic regulator for promoting immunoregulation via controlling the activation, proliferation, and apoptosis of immunocytes. In cancer, it plays a critical role in tumor microenvironment (TME) for accelerating invasion, metastasis, angiogenesis, and immunosuppression. Increasing evidence suggest a pleiotropic nature of TGF-β signaling as a critical pathway for generating fibrotic TME, which contains numerous cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), extracellular matrix proteins, and remodeling enzymes. Its pathogenic roles and working mechanisms in tumorigenesis are still largely unclear. Importantly, recent studies successfully demonstrated the clinical implications of fibrotic TME in cancer. This review systematically summarized the latest updates and discoveries of TGF-β signaling in the fibrotic TME.
Keywords: Fibrosis
Tumor microenvironment
Publisher: Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI)
Journal: International journal of molecular sciences 
ISSN: 1661-6596
EISSN: 1422-0067
DOI: 10.3390/ijms22147575
Rights: © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https:// 4.0/)
The following publication Chung, J.Y.-F.; Chan, M.K.-K.; Li, J.S.-F.; Chan, A.S.-W.; Tang, P.C.-T.; Leung, K.-T.; To, K.-F.; Lan, H.-Y.; Tang, P.M.-K. TGF- Signaling: From Tissue Fibrosis to Tumor Microenvironment. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 7575 is available at
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