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Title: Ternary and quaternary blends as partial replacement of cement to produce hollow sandcrete blocks
Authors: Sojobi, AO 
Awolusi, TF
Aina, GB
Oke, OL
Oladokun, M
Oguntayo, DO
Issue Date: Jun-2021
Source: Heliyon, June 2021, v. 7, no. 6, e07227
Abstract: Hollow sandcrete blocks constitute more than 90% of residential building construction in developing countries especially in West Africa. Over-reliance on dredged river sands and conventional ordinary Portland cement (OPC) contributes to environmental degradation and post-construction problems such as swelling and shrinkage-induced cracks prevalent in construction projects. The study investigates potential utilization of locally available materials such as laterite, calcite and calcined clay as ternary and quaternary blends to replace cement and quarry dust as 100% replacement of river sand with the aid of Taguchi-Response surface methodology approach. Optimum ternary blend of 24% calcined clay +1% calcite +75% OPC is recommended to achieve volume stability, higher compressive strength and higher flexural load capacity. Alternatively, ternary blends of 24% calcite +4% calcined clay +72% OPC can also be utilized. The improved mechanical properties were attributed to the Na- and Ca-rich aluminosilicates provided by the blended cements. Successful utilization of ternary and quaternary blended cements to produce stronger, durable and eco-friendly sandcrete blocks depends on utilization of high binder-to-aggregate ratio, optimal combination of the constituents, appropriate water-cement ratio and curing/production method. Partial and 100% replacement of river sand with granite dust is possible and contributes to reduction of environmental problems caused by river dredging as well as cleaner, ecofriendly construction. Ternary and quaternary blended cements is recommended to avert post-construction problems such as swelling and shrinkage-induced cracks prevalent in construction projects.
Keywords: Calcined clay
Calcite
Construction
Quarry dust
Quaternary blended cement
Sandcrete block
Ternary blended cement
Publisher: Elsevier
Journal: Heliyon 
EISSN: 2405-8440
DOI: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e07227
Rights: © 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
The following publication Sojobi, A. O., Awolusi, T. F., Aina, G. B., Oke, O. L., Oladokun, M., & Oguntayo, D. O. (2021). Ternary and quarternary blends as partial replacement of cement to produce hollow sandcrete blocks. Heliyon, e07227 is available at https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e07227
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