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Title: Abundance and origin of fine particulate chloride in continental China
Authors: Yang, X 
Wang, T 
Xia, M 
Gao, X
Li, Q 
Zhang, N 
Gao, Y 
Lee, S 
Wang, X
Xue, L
Yang, L
Issue Date: May-2018
Source: Science of the total environment, May 2018, v. 624, p. 1041-1051
Abstract: Particulate chloride can be converted to nitryl chloride (ClNO2) through heterogeneous reactions with dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5), and photolysis of ClNO2 affects atmospheric oxidative capacity. However, the characteristics and sources of chloride, especially those with an anthropogenic origin, are poorly characterized, which makes it difficult to evaluate the effects of ClNO2 on radical chemistry and air quality in polluted regions. Aerosol composition data from the literature were compiled to derive the spatial distributions of particulate chloride across China, and hourly aerosol composition data collected at a highly polluted inland urban site in eastern China and at a coastal site in southern China were analysed to gain further insights into non-oceanic sources of chloride. The results show that particulate chloride is concentrated mainly in fine particles and that high chloride loadings are observed in the inland urban areas of northern and western China with higher Cl−/Na+ mass ratios (2.46 to 5.00) than sea water (1.81), indicative of significant contributions from anthropogenic sources. At the inland urban site, the fine chloride displays distinct seasonality, with higher levels in winter and summer. Correlation analysis and positive matrix factorization (PMF) results indicate that coal combustion and residential biomass burning are the main sources (84.8%) of fine chloride in winter, and open biomass burning is the major sources (52.7%) in summer. The transport of plumes from inland polluted areas leads to elevated fine chloride in coastal areas. A simulation with WRF-Chem model confirmed a minor contribution of sea-salt aerosol to fine chloride at the inland site during summer with winds from the East Sea. The widespread sources of chloride, together with abundant NOx and ozone, suggest significant ClNO2 production and subsequent enhanced photochemical processes over China.
Keywords: Abundance
Anthropogenic source
Continental China
Fine chloride
Publisher: Elsevier
Journal: Science of the total environment 
ISSN: 0048-9697
EISSN: 1879-1026
DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.12.205
Rights: © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved
© 2017. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/.
The following publication Yang, X., Wang, T., Xia, M., Gao, X., Li, Q., Zhang, N., ... & Wang, W. (2017). Abundance and origin of fine particulate chloride in continental China. Science of the total environment, 624, 1041-1051 is available at https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.12.205
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