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Title: One-step production of biodiesel through simultaneous esterification and transesterification from highly acidic unrefined feedstock over efficient and recyclable ZnO nanostar catalyst
Authors: Kwong, TL 
Yung, KF 
Issue Date: May-2016
Source: Renewable energy, May 2016, v. 90, p. 450-457
Abstract: Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostar synthesized by simple and up-scalable microwave-assisted surfactant free hydrolysis method was applied as catalyst for biodiesel synthesis through one-step simultaneous esterification and transesterification from high free fatty acid (FFA) contaminated unrefined feedstock. It was found that ZnO nanostar catalyst was reacted with FFA to yield zinc oleate (ZnOl) as intermediate and finally became zinc glycerolate (ZnGly). With the re-deposition of ZnGly back to the ZnO nanostar catalyst at the end of the reaction, the catalyst can be easily recovered and stay active for five cycles. Furthermore, the rate of transesterification is highly promoted by the presence of FFA (6 wt.%) which makes it an efficient catalyst for low grade feedstock like waste cooking oil and crude plant oils.
Keywords: Biodiesel
Free fatty acid
Simultaneous esterification and transesterification
Zinc oxide
Publisher: Pergamon Press
Journal: Renewable energy 
ISSN: 0960-1481
EISSN: 1879-0682
DOI: 10.1016/j.renene.2016.01.028
Rights: © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
© 2016. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/.
The following publication Kwong, T. L., & Yung, K. F. (2016). One-step production of biodiesel through simultaneous esterification and transesterification from highly acidic unrefined feedstock over efficient and recyclable ZnO nanostar catalyst. Renewable Energy, 90, 450-457 is available at https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2016.01.028
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