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Title: Tightly coupled GNSS/INS integration via factor graph and aided by fish-eye camera
Authors: Wen, W 
Bai, X 
Kan, YC 
Hsu, LT 
Keywords: GNSS
Factor graph
Autonomous driving
Issue Date: Nov-2019
Publisher: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Source: IEEE transactions on vehicular technology, Nov. 2019, v. 68, no. 11, p. 10651-10662 How to cite?
Journal: IEEE transactions on vehicular technology 
Abstract: GNSS/INS integrated solution has been extensively studied over the past decades. However, its performance relies heavily on environmental conditions and sensor costs. The GNSS positioning can obtain satisfactory performance in the open area. Unfortunately, its accuracy can be severely degraded in a highly urbanized area, due to the notorious multipath effects and noneline-of-sight (NLOS) receptions. As a result, excessive GNSS outliers occur, which causes a huge error in GNSS/INS integration. This paper proposes to apply a fish-eye camera to capture the sky view image to further classify the NLOS and line-of-sight (LOS) measurements.Inaddition,therawINSandGNSSmeasurements are tightly integrated using a state-of-the-art probabilistic factor graphmodel.InsteadofexcludingtheNLOSreceptions,thispaper makes use of both the NLOS and LOS measurements by treating them with different weightings. Experiments conducted in typical urban canyons of Hong Kong showed that the proposed method could effectively mitigate the effects of GNSS outliers, and an improved accuracy of GNSS/INS integration was obtained, when compared with the conventional GNSS/INS integration.
ISSN: 0018-9545
EISSN: 1939-9359
DOI: 10.1109/TVT.2019.2944680
Rights: © 2019 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, including reprinting/republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works.
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The following publication W. Wen, X. Bai, Y. C. Kan and L. Hsu, "Tightly Coupled GNSS/INS Integration via Factor Graph and Aided by Fish-Eye Camera," in IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 68, no. 11, pp. 10651-10662, Nov. 2019 is available at
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