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Title: Integrating temporal and spatial control of electronic transitions for bright multiphoton upconversion
Authors: Sun, T
Li, Y
Ho, WL
Zhu, Q
Chen, X
Jin, L
Zhu, H
Huang, B 
Lin, J
Little, BE
Chu, ST
Wang, F
Issue Date: 2019
Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
Source: Nature communications, 2019, v. 10, no. 1, 1811 How to cite?
Journal: Nature communications 
Abstract: The applications of lanthanide-doped upconversion nanomaterials are limited by unsatisfactory brightness currently. Herein, a general strategy is proposed for boosting the upconversion efficiency in Er 3+ ions, based on combined use of a core−shell nanostructured host and an integrated optical waveguide circuit excitation platform. A NaErF 4 @NaYF 4 core−shell nanoparticle is constructed to host the upconversion process for minimizing non-radiative dissipation of excitation energy by surface quenchers. Furthermore, an integrated optical microring resonator is designed to promote absorption of excitation light by the nanoparticles, which alleviates quenching of excited states due to cross-relaxation and phonon-assisted energy transfer. As a result, multiphoton upconversion emission with a large anti-Stokes shift (greater than 1150 nm) and a high energy conversion efficiency (over 5.0%) is achieved under excitation at 1550 nm. These advances in controlling photon upconversion offer exciting opportunities for important photonics applications.
EISSN: 2041-1723
DOI: 10.1038/s41467-019-09850-2
Rights: This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit
© The Author(s) 2019
The following publication Sun, T., Li, Y., Ho, W. L., Zhu, Q., Chen, X., Jin, L., ... & Chu, S. T. (2019). Integrating temporal and spatial control of electronic transitions for bright multiphoton upconversion. Nature communications, 10(1), 1811 is available at
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