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Title: Efficacy of biophysical energies on healing of diabetic skin wounds in cell studies and animal experimental models : a systematic review
Authors: Kwan, RLC 
Lu, S 
Choi, HMC 
Kloth, LC
Cheing, GLY 
Keywords: Biophysical energies
Diabetes mellitus
Experimental models
Skin wounds
Systematic review
Issue Date: 2019
Publisher: Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI)
Source: International journal of molecular sciences, 2019, v. 20, no. 2, 368 How to cite?
Journal: International journal of molecular sciences 
Abstract: We have systematically assessed published cell studies and animal experimental reports on the efficacy of selected biophysical energies (BPEs) in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers. These BPEs include electrical stimulation (ES), pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF), extracorporeal shockwave (ECSW), photo energies and ultrasound (US). Databases searched included CINAHL, MEDLINE and PubMed from 1966 to 2018. Studies reviewed include animal and cell studies on treatment with BPEs compared with sham, control or other BPEs. Information regarding the objective measures of tissue healing and data was extracted. Eighty-two studies were eventually selected for the critical appraisal: five on PEMF, four each on ES and ECSW, sixty-six for photo energies, and three about US. Based on the percentage of original wound size affected by the BPEs, both PEMF and low-level laser therapy (LLL) demonstrated a significant clinical benefit compared to the control or sham treatment, whereas the effect of US did not reveal a significance. Our results indicate potential benefits of selected BPEs in diabetic wound management. However, due to the heterogeneity of the current clinical trials, comprehensive studies using well-designed trials are warranted to confirm the results.
EISSN: 1422-0067
DOI: 10.3390/ijms20020368
Rights: © 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (
The following publication Kwan R -C, Lu S, Choi H -C, Kloth LC, Cheing G -Y. Efficacy of Biophysical Energies on Healing of Diabetic Skin Wounds in Cell Studies and Animal Experimental Models: A Systematic Review. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2019; 20(2):368 is available at
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