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Title: The association between workplace violence and physicians' and nurses' job satisfaction in Macau
Authors: Cheung, T 
Lee, PH 
Yip, PSF
Issue Date: 2018
Publisher: Public Library of Science
Source: PLoS one, 5 Dec. 2018, v. 13, no. 12, e0207577, p. 1-20 How to cite?
Journal: PLoS one 
Abstract: Background This paper describes the association between workplace violence and job satisfaction among physicians and nurses in Macau. Convenience sampling was sourced from six health centers under the Macau Health Bureau.
Methods This study uses a cross-sectional self-administrative survey. The study used case studies research instruments for workplace violence in the health sector by country (from the ILO, ICN, WHO, PSI), the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire and Perceived Stress Scale. The data collection period spanned from August to December, 2014.
Data analysis Multiple logistic regression examines levels of intrinsic and extrinsic satisfaction in physicians and nurses and significant correlates affecting their job satisfaction.
Results A total of 720 (14.9% physicians) participants were recruited. 57.2% of participants reported physical and psychological workplace violence in the preceding year. The most common forms of workplace violence were verbal abuse (53.4%), physical assault (16.1%), bullying/harassment (14.2%), sexual harassment (4.6%) and racial harassment (2.6%). Nurses were at a significantly higher risk of physical assault and verbal abuse compared to physicians. Patients, patients' relatives, and colleagues were the main perpetrators. Worry about WPV, on-call duty and shift work, experience of bullying and verbal abuse and employment sector emerged as significant correlates affecting the intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction of physicians and nurses. Frontline staff, aged 30 and 39, coming from an ethnic minority, and perceived stress were significant correlates affecting nurses' job satisfaction.
Conclusions WPV remains a significant concern in healthcare settings in Macau. Stakeholders should legally enforce a zero-tolerance policy towards WPV within healthcare workplaces. WPV is detrimental to healthcare professionals' mental wellbeing, risking irreversible physical and psychological harm for its victims.
EISSN: 1932-6203
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0207577
Rights: Copyright: © 2018 Cheung et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
The following publication Cheung, T., Lee, P. H., & Yip, P. S. F. (2018). The association between workplace violence and physicians' and nurses' job satisfaction in Macau. PloS One, 13(12), e0207577, 1-20 is available at
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