Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
Title: Effect of multiple factors on foam stability in foam sclerotherapy
Authors: Bai, TP
Jiang, WT
Chen, Y
Yan, F 
Xu, Z 
Fan, YB
Issue Date: 2018
Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
Source: Scientific reports, Oct. 2018, v. 8, 15683, p. 1-7 How to cite?
Journal: Scientific reportsonline only 
Abstract: Foam sclerotherapy is a widely used treatment for varicose veins. However, complications caused by poor foam stability still remain. Most studies ignore multiple influencing factors and only study a single factor. Furthermore, a stable foam preparation using different preparation conditions has not been developed. This study aimed to explore the changing laws of foam stability under multifactorial conditions, and to determine the influence of various factors and optimal preparation conditions on the half-life of foam. A two-level orthogonal test was conducted using four factors (syringe size, surfactant, preparation temperature, and pump speed). Classifications were established as follows: syringe sizes, 2.5 mL and 5 mL; surfactant concentrations, 6% and 0%; preparation temperatures, 20 degrees C and 10 degrees C; and pump speeds, 250 mm/s and 125 mm/s, respectively. Eight experimental group (EG) multi-factor combinations were tested. Half-life and drainage time were recorded for analysis. The initial drainage time was within 200 s, but the difference between the groups was also about 200 s. The drainage rate curves of all EGs gradually increased over time. Conversely, the foam half-life extended by about 10 times for the four factors. In addition, the analyses revealed that the order of influence was surfactant >temperature>pump speed>syringe size. The most stable foam preparation was determined. Syringe size, surfactant, temperature, and pump speed had markedly observable influences on foam half-life. A combination of multiple factors can be used to prepare a more stable foam in clinical scenarios and to suitably superimpose favorable conditions to avoid unfavorable conditions.
EISSN: 2045-2322
DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-33992-w
Rights: Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit
© The Author(s) 2018
The following publication Bai, T.P., Jiang, W.T., Chen, Y., Yan, F., Xu, Z., & Fan, Y.B. (2018). Effect of multiple factors on foam stability in foam sclerotherapy. Scientific reports, 8, 15683, 1-7 is available at
Appears in Collections:Journal/Magazine Article

Files in This Item:
File Description SizeFormat 
Bai_Stability_Foam_Sclerotherapy.pdf1.58 MBAdobe PDFView/Open
View full-text via PolyU eLinks SFX Query
Show full item record
PIRA download icon_1.1View/Download Contents

Page view(s)

Citations as of Mar 22, 2019


Citations as of Mar 22, 2019

Google ScholarTM



Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.