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Title: Co-planning of demand response and distributed generators in an active distribution network
Authors: Yu, Y 
Wen, XS
Zhao, J 
Xu, Z 
Li, JY 
Keywords: Demand response
Solar energy
Wind power
Distributed generator
Active distribution network
Issue Date: 2018
Publisher: Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI)
Source: Energies, Feb. 2018, v. 11, no. 2, 354, p. 1-18 How to cite?
Journal: Energies 
Abstract: The integration of renewables is fast-growing, in light of smart grid technology development. As a result, the uncertain nature of renewables and load demand poses significant technical challenges to distribution network (DN) daily operation. To alleviate such issues, price-sensitive demand response and distributed generators can be coordinated to accommodate the renewable energy. However, the investment cost for demand response facilities, i.e., load control switch and advanced metering infrastructure, cannot be ignored, especially when the responsive demand is large. In this paper, an optimal coordinated investment for distributed generator and demand response facilities is proposed, based on a linearized, price-elastic demand response model. To hedge against the uncertainties of renewables and load demand, a two-stage robust investment scheme is proposed, where the investment decisions are optimized in the first stage, and the demand response participation with the coordination of distributed generators is adjusted in the second stage. Simulations on the modified IEEE 33-node and 123-node DN demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model.
EISSN: 1996-1073
DOI: 10.3390/en11020354
Rights: This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
The following publication Yu, Y., Wen, X. S., Zhao, J., Xu, Z., & Li, J. Y. (2018). Co-planning of demand response and distributed generators in an active distribution network. Energies, 11(2), 354, 1-18 is available at
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