Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10397/6263
Title: Usability of a virtual reality environment simulating an automated teller machine for assessing and training persons with acquired brain injury
Authors: Fong, NKK 
Chow, KYY
Chan, BCH
Lam, KCK
Lee, JCK
Li, THY
Yan, EWH
Wong, ATY
Keywords: Brain injuries
Reaction time
Sensitivity and specificity
User-computer interface
Issue Date: 30-Apr-2010
Publisher: BioMed Central Ltd.
Source: Journal of neuroEngineering and rehabilitation, 30 Apr. 2010, 7, 19, p.1-9 How to cite?
Journal: Journal of neuroEngineering and rehabilitation 
Abstract: Objective: This study aimed to examine the usability of a newly designed virtual reality (VR) environment simulating the operation of an automated teller machine (ATM) for assessment and training.
Design: Part I involved evaluation of the sensitivity and specificity of a non-immersive VR program simulating an ATM (VR-ATM). Part II consisted of a clinical trial providing baseline and post-intervention outcome assessments.
Setting: A rehabilitation hospital and university-based teaching facilities were used as the setting.
Participants: A total of 24 persons in the community with acquired brain injury (ABI) - 14 in Part I and 10 in Part II - made up the participants in the study.
Interventions: In Part I, participants were randomized to receive instruction in either an "early" or a "late" VR-ATM program and were assessed using both the VR program and a real ATM. In Part II, participants were assigned in matched pairs to either VR training or computer-assisted instruction (CAI) teaching programs for six 1-hour sessions over a three-week period.
Outcome Measures: Two behavioral checklists based on activity analysis of cash withdrawals and money transfers using a real ATM were used to measure average reaction time, percentage of incorrect responses, level of cues required, and time spent as generated by the VR system; also used was the Neurobehavioral Cognitive Status Examination.
Results: The sensitivity of the VR-ATM was 100% for cash withdrawals and 83.3% for money transfers, and the specificity was 83% and 75%, respectively. For cash withdrawals, the average reaction time of the VR group was significantly shorter than that of the CAI group (p = 0.021). We found no significant differences in average reaction time or accuracy between groups for money transfers, although we did note positive improvement for the VR-ATM group.
Conclusion: We found the VR-ATM to be usable as a valid assessment and training tool for relearning the use of ATMs prior to real-life practice in persons with ABI.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10397/6263
ISSN: 1743-0003
DOI: 10.1186/1743-0003-7-19
Rights: © 2010 Fong et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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