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Title: Links between the brain and retina : the effects of cigarette smoking-induced age-related changes in Alzheimer's disease and macular degeneration
Authors: Yu, SS
Tang, X
Ho, YS 
Chang, RCC
Chiu, K
Keywords: Age-related macular degeneration
Alzheimer-like pathology
Amyloid peptide
Cigarette smoking
Issue Date: 2016
Publisher: Frontiers Research Foundation
Source: Frontiers in neurology, 2016, v. 7, no. JUL, 0119 How to cite?
Journal: Frontiers in neurology 
Abstract: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the progressive and selective loss of neurons and synapses. This debilitating disease was estimated to affect 33.9 million patients worldwide in 2011, a number that is expected to triple over the next 40 years (1). It has been shown that a combination of several processes, including extracellular deposition of amyloid-beta (Aß) plaques and the formation of intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) composed of hyper-phosphorylated tau proteins, in the brain are involved in the declining cognitive processes associated with AD (2). While dysfunction of the aforementioned biological processes starts from Braak stage I (preclinical AD), it is not until the majority of the neocortex is severely affected by neurofibrillary changes (Braak stages V-VI) that patients are ultimately diagnosed with dementia (3).
EISSN: 1664-2295
DOI: 10.3389/fneur.2016.00119
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