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Title: Electronic bypass of spinal lesions : activation of lower motor neurons directly driven by cortical neural signals
Authors: Li, Y
Alam, M
Guo, S
Ting, K
He, J
Keywords: Extracellular recording
Functional electrical stimulation
Intracortical microstimulation
Intraspinal microstimulation
Multielectrode array
Neural spikes
Neuromotor prostheses
Spinal cord injury
Issue Date: 2014
Publisher: BioMed Central
Source: Journal of neuroEngineering and rehabilitation, 2014, v. 11, no. 1, 107 How to cite?
Journal: Journal of neuroEngineering and rehabilitation 
Abstract: Background: Lower motor neurons in the spinal cord lose supraspinal inputs after complete spinal cord injury, leading to a loss of volitional control below the injury site. Extensive locomotor training with spinal cord stimulation can restore locomotion function after spinal cord injury in humans and animals. However, this locomotion is non-voluntary, meaning that subjects cannot control stimulation via their natural "intent". A recent study demonstrated an advanced system that triggers a stimulator using forelimb stepping electromyographic patterns to restore quadrupedal walking in rats with spinal cord transection. However, this indirect source of "intent" may mean that other non-stepping forelimb activities may false-trigger the spinal stimulator and thus produce unwanted hindlimb movements. Methods. We hypothesized that there are distinguishable neural activities in the primary motor cortex during treadmill walking, even after low-thoracic spinal transection in adult guinea pigs. We developed an electronic spinal bridge, called "Motolink", which detects these neural patterns and triggers a "spinal" stimulator for hindlimb movement. This hardware can be head-mounted or carried in a backpack. Neural data were processed in real-time and transmitted to a computer for analysis by an embedded processor. Off-line neural spike analysis was conducted to calculate and preset the spike threshold for "Motolink" hardware. Results: We identified correlated activities of primary motor cortex neurons during treadmill walking of guinea pigs with spinal cord transection. These neural activities were used to predict the kinematic states of the animals. The appropriate selection of spike threshold value enabled the "Motolink" system to detect the neural "intent" of walking, which triggered electrical stimulation of the spinal cord and induced stepping-like hindlimb movements. Conclusion: We present a direct cortical "intent"-driven electronic spinal bridge to restore hindlimb locomotion after complete spinal cord injury.
ISSN: 1743-0003
DOI: 10.1186/1743-0003-11-107
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