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dc.contributorDepartment of Civil and Environmental Engineeringen_US
dc.creatorWang, Ten_US
dc.creatorLiang, Yen_US
dc.creatorZha, Qen_US
dc.creatorZhang, Len_US
dc.creatorWang, Zen_US
dc.creatorWang, Wen_US
dc.creatorPoon, Sen_US
dc.identifier.isbn978-3-319-59488-0 (Print ISBN)en_US
dc.identifier.isbn978-3-319-59489-7(Online ISBN)en_US
dc.rights© Springer International Publishing AG 2017en_US
dc.rightsThis version of the article has been accepted for publication, after peer review (when applicable) and is subject to Springer Nature’s AM terms of use (, but is not the Version of Record and does not reflect post-acceptance improvements, or any corrections. The Version of Record is available online at:
dc.subjectNitrous acid (HONO)en_US
dc.subjectField measurementen_US
dc.subjectSecondary pollutantsen_US
dc.titlePhotochemical smog in southern China : a synthesis of observations and model investigations of the sources and effects of nitrous aciden_US
dc.typeBook Chapteren_US
dcterms.abstractRecent studies have revealed potentially important effects of additional source(s) of hydroxyl radicals on the atmosphere’s oxidative capacity and, in turn, the production of secondary air pollutants. In this paper, we give an overview of our recent efforts in investigating the sources and effects of nitrous acid (HONO) on ozone and some secondary aerosols in southern China by combining field measurements and model simulations. Beginning in 2011, a series of field measurements of HONO were conducted at five sites, with diverse land use and different effects of emission sources. We observed the seasonal characteristics, emission ratios, heterogeneous production, and made simulations with a chemical transport model for the photochemical effects of HONO. The key findings are as follows. The derived emission ratios from vehicles exhibited wide variability and were mostly higher than the more uniform value of 0.8% reported in the literature. Larger nocturnal heterogeneous conversion rates of NO2 to HONO were observed when air masses were passing over sea surfaces, compared with land surfaces. Widely reported daytime sources of HONO also exist in Hong Kong. Moreover, the revised WRF-Chem model with comprehensive HONO sources significantly improved the simulations of the observed HONO, which enhanced regional hydroxyl radicals, O3, and PM2.5 by 10–20, 8–15, and 10–15% over urban areas in the Pearl River Delta region, respectively. Our studies highlight the importance of considering HONO sources when simulating secondary pollutants in polluted atmospheres.en_US
dcterms.accessRightsopen accessen_US
dcterms.bibliographicCitationIn I Bouarar, X Wang & G Brasseur (Eds.), Air Pollution in Eastern Asia: An Integrated Perspective. ISSI Scientific Report Series, vol 16, p.69-85. Cham : Springer, 2017.en_US
dc.relation.ispartofbookAir pollution in eastern Asia : an integrated perspectiveen_US
dc.description.validate202204 bcfcen_US
dc.description.oaAccepted Manuscripten_US
dc.description.fundingTextThe Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department; Hong Kong Polytechnic Universityen_US
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