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Title: Self-disclosure to a robot : only for those who suffer the most
Authors: Duan, YE 
Yoon, MJ 
Liang, ZE 
Hoorn, JF 
Issue Date: Sep-2021
Source: Robotics, Sept. 2021, v. 10, no. 3, 98
Abstract: Social robots may become an innovative means to improve the well-being of individuals. Earlier research has shown that people easily self-disclose to a social robot, even in cases where it was unintended by the designers. We report on an experiment considering self-disclosing in a diary journal or to a social robot after negative mood induction. An off-the-shelf robot was complemented with our in-house developed AI chatbot, which could talk about ‘hot topics’ after training it with thousands of entries on a complaint website. We found that people who felt strongly negative after being exposed to shocking video footage benefited the most from talking to our robot, rather than writing down their feelings. For people less affected by the treatment, a confidential robot chat or writing a journal page did not differ significantly. We discuss emotion theory in relation to robotics and possibilities for an application in design (the emoji-enriched ‘talking stress ball’). We also underline the importance of otherwise disregarded outliers in a data set of therapeutic nature.
Keywords: Diary
Emotion theory
Social robots
Publisher: Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI)
Journal: Robotics 
EISSN: 2218-6581
DOI: 10.3390/robotics10030098
Rights: © 2021 by the authors.Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.This article is an open access articledistributed under the terms andconditions of the Creative CommonsAttribution (CC BY) license (
The following publication Duan, Y.; Yoon, M.; Liang,Z.; Hoorn, J.F. Self-Disclosure to aRobot: Only for Those Who Suffer theMost. Robotics 2021, 10, 98 is available at
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