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Title: Graded bulk-heterojunction enables 17% binary organic solar cells via nonhalogenated open air coating
Authors: Zhang, Y 
Liu, K 
Huang, J 
Xia, X
Cao, J 
Zhao, G 
Fong, PWK 
Zhu, Y 
Yan, F:rp00143 
Yang, Y
Lu, X
Li, G 
Issue Date: 2021
Source: Nature communications, 2021, v. 12, 4815
Abstract: Graded bulk-heterojunction (G-BHJ) with well-defined vertical phase separation has potential to surpass classical BHJ in organic solar cells (OSCs). In this work, an effective G-BHJ strategy via nonhalogenated solvent sequential deposition is demonstrated using nonfullerene acceptor (NFA) OSCs. Spin-coated G-BHJ OSCs deliver an outstanding 17.48% power conversion efficiency (PCE). Depth-profiling X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (DP-XPS) and angle-dependent grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GI-XRD) techniques enable the visualization of polymer/NFA composition and crystallinity gradient distributions, which benefit charge transport, and enable outstanding thick OSC PCEs (16.25% for 300 nm, 14.37% for 500 nm), which are among the highest reported. Moreover, the nonhalogenated solvent enabled G-BHJ OSC via open-air blade coating and achieved a record 16.77% PCE. The blade-coated G-BHJ has drastically different D-A crystallization kinetics, which suppresses the excessive aggregation induced unfavorable phase separation in BHJ. All these make G-BHJ a feasible and promising strategy towards highly efficient, eco- and manufacture friendly OSCs.
Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
Journal: Nature communications 
EISSN: 2041-1723
DOI: 10.1038/s41467-021-25148-8
Rights: © The Author(s) 2021
Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative CommonsAttribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing,adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you giveappropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the CreativeCommons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third partymaterial in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unlessindicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in thearticle’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutoryregulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly fromthe copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit
The following publication Zhang, Y., Liu, K., Huang, J. et al. Graded bulk-heterojunction enables 17% binary organic solar cells via nonhalogenated open air coating. Nat Commun 12, 4815 (2021) is available at
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