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Title: Effectiveness and barriers of pre-refurbishment auditing for refurbishment and renovation waste management
Authors: Yu, ATW 
Wong, I 
Mok, KSH 
Issue Date: Dec-2021
Source: Environmental challenges, Dec. 2021, v. 5, 100231
Abstract: The construction industry is the major source of Construction and Demolition (C&D) waste in Hong Kong. The capacity of landfills will reach saturation in a couple of years. Refurbishment and renovation projects contribute 10 to 20% of C&D waste. There are about 50,000 buildings in Hong Kong that are more than 30 years old and may require extensive refurbishment or renovation under the Mandatory Building Inspection Scheme. Besides, most new owners/tenants will renovate their premises before moving in. There is an urgent need to explore and develop effective waste management strategies and measures for refurbishment/renovation projects in Hong Kong. This research study aims to identify the types and estimate the quantities of refurbishment and renovation (R&R) waste; and evaluate the effectiveness of Pre-refurbishment Auditing (PRA) as a waste management strategy for these projects. Desktop study, semi-structured interviews, site observations and document reviews were used as the data collection methods to achieve the objectives of this research study. Content Analysis and Thematic Analysis were used for data analysis. The findings revealed that PRA is an effective strategy to be implemented in R&R waste management. Barriers for implementing PRA include (a) lack of sorting and storage spaces; (b) high cost; (c) insufficient government supporting policy; (d) complicated recycling processes, (e) immature recycling market, and (f) insufficient public education. To tackle these obstacles, government is recommended to take lead in conducting PRA and issue guidelines as a reference. The Building Department can also consider taking up an active role in policy making and promoting PRA.
Keywords: Construction waste
Pre-refurbishment audit
Refurbishment and renovation
Reuse and recycling
Waste management strategy
Publisher: Elsevier BV
Journal: Environmental challenges 
EISSN: 2667-0100
DOI: 10.1016/j.envc.2021.100231
Rights: © 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (
The following publication Ann, T. W., Wong, I., & Mok, K. S. (2021). Effectiveness and barriers of Pre-refurbishment Auditing for refurbishment and renovation waste management. Environmental Challenges, 5, 100231 is available at
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