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Title: Cultural differences and job performance in container shipping : a social exchange theory perspective
Authors: Lin, CC
Lu, CS 
Issue Date: 2023
Source: Maritime policy and management, 2023, v. 50, no. 2, p. 157-181
Abstract: Drawing on the social exchange theory, the objective of this study is to examine employees’ perceptions of cultural differences of container shipping companies and its impact on job performance. We also examined the role of the leadership in the relationship between cultural differences and job performance. Survey data collected from 740 employees of container shipping companies in six different countries including UK, Germany, Belgium, Netherlands, Mainland China, and Taiwan. A hierarchical regression analysis was conducted. Results indicated that transformational leadership and national cultural differences with respect to uncertainty avoidance, collectivism, and long-term orientation positively influenced job performance, whereas national cultural differences with respect to power distance and masculinity negatively influence job performance. Specifically, this research finds that transformational leadership plays a moderating role on the relationships between national culture differences and job performance. Implications for theory and practices were discussed.
Keywords: Container shipping
National culture
Culture difference
Transformational leadership
Job performance
Social exchange theory
Publisher: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group
Journal: Maritime policy and management 
ISSN: 0308-8839
EISSN: 1464-5254
DOI: 10.1080/03088839.2021.1975054
Rights: © 2021 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group
This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in Maritime policy and management on 8 Sep 2021 (Published online), available online:
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