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Title: Dimensionality of the Chinese CES-D : is it stable across gender, time, and samples?
Authors: Dou, D 
Shek, DTL 
Zhu, X 
Zhao, L
Issue Date: Nov-2021
Source: International journal of environmental research and public health, Nov. 2021, v. 18, no. 22, 11818
Abstract: Depression is a common mental illness among Chinese adolescents. Although the Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) has been widely used in diverse populations, the reported factor structures are inconsistent, and its longitudinal invariance is under-researched. This study examined the psychometric properties and factorial invariance across gender and time of the CES-D among Chinese adolescents. Adolescents aged above 11 years from five schools in Chengdu responded to a questionnaire atWave 1 (n = 5690). Among them, 4981 participants completed the same questionnaire after six months (Wave 2). The matched sample was composed of 4922 students (51.5% were girls; mean age = 13.15 years) at Wave 1. We used exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to examine the factor structure and performed multi-group CFA to test the factorial invariance across gender and time. A three-factor solution was identified, including “positive affect”, “somatic complaints”, and “depressed affect”. Results of multi-group CFA comparisons supported the factorial invariance of the resultant three-factor solution. Using a new sample of Chinese adolescents in Southwestern China, the present study reproduced earlier findings on adolescents in other areas in China. This study has implications for depression assessment and research in Chinese adolescents.
Keywords: Chinese adolescents
Factorial invariance
Longitudinal invariance
Publisher: Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI)
Journal: International journal of environmental research and public health 
ISSN: 1661-7827
EISSN: 1660-4601
DOI: 10.3390/ijerph182211818
Rights: © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (
The following publication Dou, D.; Shek, D.T.L.; Zhu, X.; Zhao, L. Dimensionality of the Chinese CES-D: Is It Stable across Gender, Time, and Samples?. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 11818 is available at
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