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Title: What is suitable social distancing for people wearing face masks during the COVID-19 pandemic?
Authors: Deng, Z
Chen, Q 
Issue Date: Jan-2022
Source: Indoor air, Jan. 2022, v. 32, no. 1, e12935
Abstract: COVID-19 has caused the global pandemic and had a serious impact on people's daily lives. The respiratory droplets produced from coughing and talking of an infected patient were possible transmission routes of coronavirus between people. To avoid the infection, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) advised to wear face masks while maintaining a social distancing of 2 m. Can the social distancing be reduced if people wear masks? To answer this question, we measured the mass of inhaled droplets by a susceptible manikin wearing a mask with different social distances, which was produced by coughing and talking of an index “patient” (human subject) also wearing a mask. We also used the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technology with a porous media model and particle dispersion model to simulate the transmission of droplets from the patient to the susceptible person with surgical and N95 masks. We compared the CFD results with the measured velocity in the environmental chamber and found that the social distancing could be reduced to 0.5 m when people wearing face masks. In this case, the mass concentration of inhaled particles was less than two people without wearing masks and with a social distancing of 2 m. Hence, when the social distancing was difficult, wearing masks could protect people. We also found that the leakage between the face mask and the human face played an important role in the exhaled airflow pattern and particle dispersion. The verified numerical model can be used for more scenarios with different indoor environments and HVAC systems. The results of this study would make business profitable with reduced social distancing in transportation, education, and entertainment industries, which was beneficial for the reopening of the economy.
Keywords: Chamber test
Computational fluid dynamics
N95 mask
Particle mass concentration
Porous media model
Surgical mask
Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell
Journal: Indoor air 
ISSN: 0905-6947
EISSN: 1600-0668
DOI: 10.1111/ina.12935
Rights: © 2021 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd
This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Deng, Z, Chen, Q. What is suitable social distancing for people wearing face masks during the COVID-19 pandemic? Indoor Air. 2022; 32:e12935, which has been published in final form at This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Use of Self-Archived Versions. This article may not be enhanced, enriched or otherwise transformed into a derivative work, without express permission from Wiley or by statutory rights under applicable legislation. Copyright notices must not be removed, obscured or modified. The article must be linked to Wiley’s version of record on Wiley Online Library and any embedding, framing or otherwise making available the article or pages thereof by third parties from platforms, services and websites other than Wiley Online Library must be prohibited.
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