Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10397/91830
DC FieldValueLanguage
dc.contributorDepartment of Electrical Engineeringen_US
dc.contributorDepartment of Logistics and Maritime Studiesen_US
dc.creatorHu, Qen_US
dc.creatorGu, Wen_US
dc.creatorWang, Sen_US
dc.date.accessioned2021-12-23T02:00:06Z-
dc.date.available2021-12-23T02:00:06Z-
dc.identifier.issn1366-5545en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10397/91830-
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.publisherPergamon Pressen_US
dc.subjectBilevel programmingen_US
dc.subjectContainer subsidyen_US
dc.subjectIntermodal transporten_US
dc.subjectWaterway transporten_US
dc.titleOptimal subsidy scheme design for promoting intermodal freight transporten_US
dc.typeJournal/Magazine Articleen_US
dc.identifier.volume157en_US
dc.identifier.doi10.1016/j.tre.2021.102561en_US
dcterms.abstractWaterborne transport is known to have low environmental impacts compared to other modes. This paper investigates the optimal container subsidies for shippers to promote intermodal shipping involving waterways in a regional transportation network. We consider a linear subsidy scheme consisting of a fixed-rate component and a variable component proportional to the sailing distance. The optimal subsidy design problem is formulated as a bilevel program to maximize the intermodal transport split of demand and minimize the subsidy expenditure. Faster methods are developed to solve the optimization problems of two special subsidy forms, i.e., fixed-rate and distance-based schemes. A case study of the Pearl River Delta region in China suggests that an optimally designed subsidy scheme can increase the intermodal split of container transport by 16%. Many insights are unveiled from the case study regarding the performance comparison between different subsidy schemes, the optimal schemes’ environmental impacts, and their effects on individual shippers and feeder ports. For example, the subsidy is less effective for shippers originating too far from or too close to the hub port and for highly time-sensitive or time-insensitive goods. Moreover, two commonly-used objectives, maximizing the intermodal split and minimizing the CO2 emissions, are well aligned as they yield similar solutions. These insights can assist the local governments in determining the appropriate subsidy schemes and better understanding their overall effects.en_US
dcterms.accessRightsembargoed accessen_US
dcterms.bibliographicCitationTransportation research. Part E, Logistics and transportation review, Jan. 2022, v. 157, 102561en_US
dcterms.isPartOfTransportation research. Part E, Logistics and transportation reviewen_US
dcterms.issued2022-01-
dc.identifier.scopus2-s2.0-85121121750-
dc.identifier.eissn1878-5794en_US
dc.identifier.artn102561en_US
dc.description.validate202112 bcvcen_US
dc.description.oaNot applicableen_US
dc.identifier.FolderNumbera1126-n01, a2089-
dc.identifier.SubFormID43967, 46538-
dc.description.fundingSourceRGCen_US
dc.description.fundingSourceOthersen_US
dc.description.fundingTextRGC: 15224317en_US
dc.description.fundingTextOthers: P0001008en_US
dc.description.pubStatusPublisheden_US
dc.date.embargo2025-01-31en_US
Appears in Collections:Journal/Magazine Article
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