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Title: A hybrid framework for direct CO2 emissions quantification in China’s construction sector
Authors: Ogungbile, AJ 
Shen, GQ 
Wuni, IY 
Xue, J 
Hong, J
Issue Date: Nov-2021
Source: International journal of environmental research and public health, Nov. 2021, v. 18, no. 22, 11965
Abstract: Carbon emission quantifications in China are not consistent, with many standards and methods having been used over the years. This study identified the non-consideration of China-specific technology and databases as a factor limiting comprehensive quantification. The study aimed to comprehensively quantify regional direct CO2 emission in the industry using a hybrid of economic and environmental data. We retrieved nineteen (19) sets of fossil fuel and electricity data from provincial energy yearbooks between 1997 and 2015 for the study. To generate regression models for each of the six regional construction industries in China, the study further integrated the results with three sets of econometric data: total annual construction output, cement, and steel product yearly consumption data. The study identified the North China region as the main source of direct CO2 emission with over 30%, while Southeast China contributed the least. While there is a gradual shift to other energy sources, the study identified coal and crude oil to remain as the main energy sources in the industry. Cement and steel data exhibited a significant predictive relationship with CO2 emissions in five regional construction industries. The study identified the need to have policies tailored to technological improvements to enhance renewable energy generation and usage in the industry. The models developed in this study could be used to generate initial quantifications of carbon emissions in construction industries with similar carbon-emitting characteristics for carbon tracking, and energy policies for decision making. However, the three economic indicators used in the study could be extended to generate more robust models in future research.
Keywords: Direct CO2 emissions
Econometric analysis
Energy consumption
Fossil fuel
Regional construction industry
Publisher: Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI)
Journal: International journal of environmental research and public health 
ISSN: 1661-7827
EISSN: 1660-4601
DOI: 10.3390/ijerph182211965
Rights: © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https:// 4.0/).
The following publication Ogungbile, A.J.; Shen, G.Q.; Wuni, I.Y.; Xue, J.; Hong, J. A Hybrid Framework for Direct CO2 Emissions Quantification in China’s Construction Sector. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 11965 is available at
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