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Title: Interactive effects of institutional, economic, social and environmental barriers on sustainable housing in a developing country
Authors: Adabre, MA 
Chan, APC 
Darko, A 
Issue Date: Jan-2022
Source: Building and environment, Jan. 2022, v. 207, part B, 108487
Abstract: This study investigates the causal relationships among ‘institutional’, ‘economic’, ‘social’ and ‘environmental’ sustainability barriers in addition to assessing their effects on sustainable housing. A questionnaire survey was conducted with professionals in the regulated sector of the Ghanaian housing market. Data collected were analyzed using the partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM). Results revealed the following significant paths among the barriers: ‘institutional barriers’ to ‘economic barriers’ path is supported at a significance level of p < .05 at a t-value of 2.125; ‘institutional barriers’ to ‘social barriers’ path is also supported at a significance level of p < .05 at a t-value of 2.132 and likewise ‘institutional barriers’ to ‘environmental barriers’ path of p < .01 at a t-value of 3.740. Between the barriers and sustainable housing, both ‘institutional barriers’ and ‘environmental barriers’ have significant impacts on sustainable housing at t-values of 3.673 and 1.790 supported at p < .01 and p < .10, respectively. Three underlying barriers, viz: ‘bureaucratic delays’, ‘policy instability’ and ‘weak enforcement of development control on land’ accounted for all the significant paths of the ‘institutional barriers’. Among them ‘policy instability’ has the highest loading, suggesting that it is the biggest barrier to sustainable housing. Essentially, the findings unraveled the causal-effect relationships among the four categories of barriers and a predictive model between the barriers and sustainable housing. Accordingly, the ‘institutional barriers’ are causal barriers that have multiplier effects on ‘economic’, ‘social’ and ‘environmental’ barriers. The findings of this study contribute to the global body of knowlege on housing by investigating the interactive effects of institutional, economic, social and environmental sustainability barriers on sustainable housing. This equips policymakers and practitioners with deeper knowledge, enabling effective decisions, policies and strategies to overcome the barriers and promote sustainable housing development and supply.
Keywords: Economic barriers
Environmental barriers
Institutional barriers
Social barriers
Sustainable housing
Publisher: Pergamon Press
Journal: Building and environment 
ISSN: 0360-1323
EISSN: 1873-684X
DOI: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2021.108487
Rights: © 2021 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
© 2021. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license
The following publication Adabre, M. A., Chan, A. P. C., & Darko, A. (2022). Interactive effects of institutional, economic, social and environmental barriers on sustainable housing in a developing country. Building and Environment, 207, 108487 is available at
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