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Title: Impact of climate indicators on the COVID-19 pandemic in Saudi Arabia
Authors: Abdel-Aal, MAM
Eltoukhy, AEE 
Nabhan, MA
AlDurgam, MM
Issue Date: Mar-2022
Source: Environmental science and pollution research, Mar. 2022, v. 29, no. 14, p. 20449-20462
Abstract: The novel coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak has left a major impact on daily lifestyle and human activities. Many recent studies confrmed that the COVID-19 pandemic has human-to-human transmissibility. Additional studies claimed that other factors afect the viability, transmissibility, and propagation range of COVID-19. The efect of weather factors on the spread of COVID-19 has gained much attention among researchers. The current study investigates the relationship between climate indicators and daily detected COVID-19 cases in Saudi Arabia, focusing on the top fve cities with confrmed cases. The examined climate indicators were temperature (°F), dew point (°F), humidity (%), wind speed (mph), and pressure (Hg). Using data from Spring 2020 and 2021, we conducted spatio-temporal correlation, regression, and time series analyses. The results provide preliminary evidence that the COVID-19 pandemic spread in most of the considered cities is signifcantly correlated with temperature (positive correlation) and pressure (negative correlation). The discrepancies in the results from diferent cites addressed in this study suggest that non-meteorological factors need to be explored in conjunction with weather attributes in a sufciently long-term analysis to provide meaningful policy measures for the future.
Keywords: COVID-19
Climate indicators
Correlation tests
Dew point
Wind speed
Publisher: Springer
Journal: Environmental science and pollution research 
ISSN: 0944-1344
EISSN: 1614-7499
DOI: 10.1007/s11356-021-17305-9
Rights: © The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2021
This version of the article has been accepted for publication, after peer review (when applicable) and is subject to Springer Nature’s AM terms of use, but is not the Version of Record and does not reflect post-acceptance improvements, or any corrections. The Version of Record is available online at:
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