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Title: A fluorescent probe for the discrimination of oxidation states of palladium
Authors: Jiang, LJ 
Mak, HN 
Walter, ERH
Wong, WT 
Wong, KL
Long, NJ
Issue Date: Aug-2021
Source: Chemical science, 7 Aug. 2021, v. 12, no. 28, p. 9977-9982
Abstract: Palladium-based catalysts are widely used in pharmaceutical industries, which can sometimes cause palladium contamination in pharmaceutical drug manufacture. It is important to separately quantify the different oxidation states of palladium (Pd-0 and Pd2+) in pharmaceuticals as they react with scavengers differently. Although palladium sensors have been under intense investigation, oxidation state differentiators are very rare. Here, we report a simple porphyrin-coumarin conjugate, PPIX-L2, that can selectively discriminate between the oxidation states of palladium. The reaction of PPIX-L2 with Pd-0 showed a 24-fold fluorescence increase of the coumarin emission, meanwhile, the presence of Pd2+ led to a 98% quenching of the porphyrin emission. Fluorescent responses of PPIX-L2 towards Pd-0 and Pd2+ are specific, and its sensitivity towards both palladium species is significantly increased with a detection limit of 75 nM and 382 nM for Pd-0 and Pd2+ respectively.
Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry
Journal: Chemical science 
ISSN: 2041-6520
EISSN: 2041-6539
DOI: 10.1039/d1sc01616d
Rights: © 2021 THE AUTHORS. Published by Elsevier BV on behalf of Faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams University. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (
The following publication Jiang, L., Mak, H. -., Walter, E. R. H., Wong, W. -., Wong, K. -., & Long, N. J. (2021). A fluorescent probe for the discrimination of oxidation states of palladium. Chemical Science, 12(29), 9977-9982 is available at
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