Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10397/91676
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dc.contributorDepartment of Land Surveying and Geo-Informatics-
dc.creatorZou, F-
dc.creatorTenzer, R-
dc.creatorFok, HS-
dc.creatorMeng, GJ-
dc.creatorZhao, Q-
dc.date.accessioned2021-11-24T06:07:38Z-
dc.date.available2021-11-24T06:07:38Z-
dc.identifier.issn1939-1404-
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10397/91676-
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.publisherInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineersen_US
dc.rightsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. For more information, see https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/en_US
dc.rightsThe following publication Zou, F., Tenzer, R., Fok, H. S., Meng, G., & Zhao, Q. (2021). The Sea-Level Changes in Hong Kong From Tide-Gauge Records and Remote Sensing Observations Over the Last Seven Decades. IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, 14, 6777-6791 is available at https://doi.org/10.1109/JSTARS.2021.3087263en_US
dc.subjectSea levelen_US
dc.subjectSea measurementsen_US
dc.subjectTidesen_US
dc.subjectRiversen_US
dc.subjectAltimetryen_US
dc.subjectSociologyen_US
dc.subjectGlobal Positioning Systemen_US
dc.subjectEl Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)en_US
dc.subjectLand subsidenceen_US
dc.subjectSatellite-altimetry (SA) observationsen_US
dc.subjectSea-level changes (SLCs)en_US
dc.subjectTide-gauge (TG) recorden_US
dc.titleThe sea-level changes in Hong Kong from tide-gauge records and remote sensing observations over the last seven decadesen_US
dc.typeJournal/Magazine Articleen_US
dc.identifier.spage6777-
dc.identifier.epage6791-
dc.identifier.volume14-
dc.identifier.doi10.1109/JSTARS.2021.3087263-
dcterms.abstractThe importance of studying the sea-level change (SLC) in Hong Kong (HK) is emphasized by factors related to high population density, intensive urban, and industrial development, particularly along the coast that involves a considerable landreclamation. To address this issue, we investigate the spatiotemporal characteristics of SLC in the HK territories by analyzing tide-gauge (TG) records collected from 1954 to 2019 and satellite-altimetry (SA) data from 1993 to 2019. The application of the ocean-tide and inverted barometer corrections to TG data substantially decreased uncertaintie by achieving a submillimeter accuracy. The SLC rates detected at six TG stations vary significantly even within this relatively small coastline. According to our estimates, the annual rates vary between 0.32 +/- 0.51 and 4.19 +/- 0.46 mm/yr from 1997 to 2019. These large differences are related to different patterns of ocean currents and the freshwater discharge in the Pearl River Estuary. The empirical orthogonal function analysis confirms the expected increasing rising in SLC with two anomalous periods during 2002-2003 and 2015-2016 that are likely attributed to the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). SLCs are positively correlated with the ENSO index and ENSO precedes several months (normally 5 months) the interannual SLC. The analysis of the GPS trends reveals a prevailing subsidence in the HK territories, which aggravates the relative SLC estimates. Between 1997 and 2019, the absolute sea level raised at the annual rate of 3.17 +/- 1.56 mm/yr (when using the GPS+TG) and 2.88 +/- 0.59 mm/yr (when using SA observations).-
dcterms.accessRightsopen accessen_US
dcterms.bibliographicCitationIEEE journal of selected topics in applied earth observations and remote sensing, 2021, v. 14, p. 6777-6791-
dcterms.isPartOfIEEE journal of selected topics in applied earth observations and remote sensing-
dcterms.issued2021-
dc.identifier.isiWOS:000673442300032-
dc.identifier.eissn2151-1535-
dc.description.validate202111 bchy-
dc.description.oaVersion of Recorden_US
dc.identifier.FolderNumberOA_Scopus/WOSen_US
dc.description.pubStatusPublisheden_US
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