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Title: Measuring the up-to-date quality of online food delivery : formative index construction
Authors: Chan, J 
Gao, YL 
Issue Date: 16-Nov-2021
Source: International journal of contemporary hospitality management, 16 Nov. 2021, v. 33, no. 12, p. 4550-4568
Abstract: Purpose: This study aims to fill this paucity of knowledge by exploring and formulating a formative index to measure the up-to-date quality of online food delivery (DEQUAL). The quality measurements for online food delivery have not been well recognized and even little is known after the COVID-19 outbreak. This study fills this paucity of knowledge by exploring and formulating a formative index to measure the up-to-date quality of online food delivery (DEQUAL).
Design/methodology/approach: Owing to the explorative nature and the lack of developed quality theory under the unprecedented COVID-19 pandemic, DEQUAL is conceptualized as a formative construct. This study adopts a mixed-method approach including expert interviews and online surveys to ascertain the underlying structure of DEQUAL.
Findings: Using partial least squares structural equation modeling as the analytical method, the results support that DEQUAL is a formative construct with 32 indicators. This study provides a measurement index with robust psychometric properties to assist practitioners in evaluating DEQUAL.
Research limitations/implications: This study contributes a theoretical and empirical-based conceptualization of DEQUAL as a multi-dimensional construct. Supplementing the past studies which commonly applied the reflective approach, this study evinces that the formative approach is also appropriate and thence furnishes the relevance of the formative index in the service management theories.
Practical implications: Practitioners are suggested to apply the validated indicators for service audit and customer relationship management. By systematically monitoring and measuring the online food delivery service quality, restaurants can improve customer satisfaction and loyalty.
Originality/value: This study offers various insights to the service quality literature in the food delivery service context.
Keywords: COVID-19
Formative index
Online food delivery
Service quality
Publisher: Emerald Group Publishing Limited
Journal: International journal of contemporary hospitality management 
ISSN: 0959-6119
EISSN: 1757-1049
DOI: 10.1108/IJCHM-06-2021-0739
Rights: © Emerald Publishing Limited. This AAM is provided for your own personal use only. It may not be used for resale, reprinting, systematic distribution, emailing, or for any other commercial purpose without the permission of the publisher.
The following publication Chan, J. and Gao, Y.L. (2021), "Measuring the up-to-date quality of online food delivery: formative index construction", International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, Vol. 33 No. 12, pp. 4550-4568 is published by Emerald and is available at
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