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Title: Numerical research of pump-as-turbine performance with synergy analysis
Authors: Cao, Z 
Deng, J
Zhao, L
Lu, L 
Issue Date: Jun-2021
Source: Processes, June 2021, v. 9, no. 6, 1031
Abstract: The wide use of pumps and turbines has significant value in energy conservation and utilization. In this work, a three-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model and a one-dimensional theoretical model of a Pump as Turbine (PAT) were established. On this basis, the correlation between pressure and velocity was quantitatively investigated by a proposed sensitivity index (SPV). A synergy field analysis was then applied to evaluate the flow characteristics of a pump and PAT, providing a perspective from the mechanism of the energy transfer enhancement for hydraulic devices. Moreover, the hydraulic and synergy performances of PAT were studied under various operating conditions. The results show that the minimum SPV is obtained in the impeller. With increasing flow rate, the SPV of the PAT generally increases, and the synergy angle of the impeller surface increases as well. A strong disordered synergy field is observed in regions of the blade leading edge, trailing edge, and volute tongue. The variations in efficiency and head with flow rate showed similar trends, respectively, with the synergy angle of the outlet and the mid-plane. This study provides an analytical method for quantitative evaluation of flow synergy characteristics, and it supplies a basis for further design improvement of the pump and PAT.
Keywords: Centrifugal pump
Hydraulic performance
Pump as turbine
Publisher: Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI)
Journal: Processes 
EISSN: 2227-9717
DOI: 10.3390/pr9061031
Rights: © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (
The following publication Cao, Z.; Deng, J.; Zhao, L.; Lu, L. Numerical Research of Pump-as-Turbine Performance with Synergy Analysis. Processes 2021, 9, 1031 is available at
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