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Title: Exploring allometric scaling relations between fractal dimensions of metro networks and economic, environmental and social indicators : a case study of 26 cities in China
Authors: Lan, T 
Peng, Q 
Wang, H
Gong, X 
Li, J 
Shi, Z
Issue Date: Jul-2021
Source: ISPRS international journal of geo-information, July 2021, v. 10, no. 7, 429
Abstract: Allometric scaling originates in biology, where it refers to scaling relations between the size of a body part and the size of the whole body when an organism grows. In cities, various allometric relations have also been discovered, such as those between the complexity of traffic networks and urban quantities. Metro networks are typical traffic networks in cities. However, whether allometric relations with metro networks exist is still uncertain. In this study, “fractal dimension” was employed as the complexity measure of metro networks, and potential allometric relations between fractal dimensions and urban indicators in 26 main cities in China were explored. It was found that fractal dimensions of metro networks had positive allometric relations with gross domestic product (GDP), population, particulate matter with a diameter less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5), the road congestion index and the average price of second-hand housing (with Spearman’s R of 0.789, 0.806, 0.273, 0.625 and 0.335, respectively) but inverse allometric relations with sulfur dioxide (SO2) and residential satisfaction (with Spearman’s R of −0.270 and −0.419, respectively). Such discoveries imply that allometric relations do exist with metro networks, which is helpful in deepening our understanding of how metro systems interact with urban quantities in the self-organized evolution of cities.
Keywords: Allometric scaling
Fractal dimension
Metro network
Socio-economic indicator
Publisher: Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI)
Journal: ISPRS international journal of geo-information 
EISSN: 2220-9964
DOI: 10.3390/ijgi10070429
Rights: © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (
The following publication Lan, T.; Peng, Q.;Wang, H.; Gong, X.; Li, J.; Shi, Z. Exploring Allometric Scaling Relations between Fractal Dimensions of Metro Networks and Economic, Environmental and Social Indicators: A Case Study of 26 Cities in China. ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10, 429 is available at
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