Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
PIRA download icon_1.1View/Download Full Text
Title: COVID-19 : research directions for non-clinical aerosol-generating facilities in the built environment
Authors: Law, RCK 
Lai, JHK 
Edwards, DJ
Hou, HC
Issue Date: Jul-2021
Source: Buildings, July 2021, v. 11, no. 7, 282
Abstract: Physical contact and respiratory droplet transmission have been widely regarded as the main routes of COVID-19 infection. However, mounting evidence has unveiled the risk of aerosol transmission of the virus. Whereas caution has been taken to avoid this risk in association with clinical facilities, facilities such as spa pools and Jacuzzis, which are characterized by bubble-aerosol generation, high bather loads, and limited turnover rates, may promote aerosol transmission. Focusing on these non-clinical facilities in the built environment, a review study was undertaken. First, the typical water disinfection and ventilation-aided operations for the facilities were illustrated. Second, cross comparisons were made between the applicable standards and guidelines of the World Health Organization and countries including Australia, Canada, China, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The similarities and differences in their water quality specifications, ventilation requirements, and air quality enhancement measures were identified; there were no specific regulations for preventing aerosol transmission at those aerosol-generating facilities. Third, a qualitative review of research publications revealed the emergence of studies on potential air-borne transmission of COVID-19, but research on built facilities posing high risks of aerosol transmission remains scant. This study’s results inform key directions for future research on abating aerosol transmission of COVID-19: the development of bespoke personal protective equipment and engineering and management controls on water quality, ventilation, and air quality.
Keywords: Aerosol
Air quality
Water quality
Publisher: Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI)
Journal: Buildings 
EISSN: 2075-5309
DOI: 10.3390/buildings11070282
Rights: © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( 4.0/).
The following publication Law, R.C.K.; Lai, J.H.K.; Edwards, D.J.; Hou, H. COVID-19: Research Directions for Non-Clinical Aerosol-Generating Facilities in the Built Environment. Buildings 2021, 11, 282 is available at
Appears in Collections:Journal/Magazine Article

Files in This Item:
File Description SizeFormat 
buildings-11-00282-v3.pdf1.18 MBAdobe PDFView/Open
Open Access Information
Status open access
File Version Version of Record
View full-text via PolyU eLinks SFX Query
Show full item record

Page views

Last Week
Last month
Citations as of May 28, 2023


Citations as of May 28, 2023


Citations as of Jun 2, 2023


Citations as of Jun 1, 2023

Google ScholarTM



Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.