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Title: Influence of classroom soundscape on learning attitude
Authors: Chan, YN 
Choy, YS 
To, WM
Lai, TM
Issue Date: Jul-2021
Source: International journal of instruction, July 2021, v. 14, no. 3, p. 341-358
Abstract: This study aims to investigate the interaction between acoustical and psychological features in the perception of soundscape to improve the learning attitude. Sound measurements were performed in nine classrooms in three Hong Kong’s higher education institutions and questionnaires were used to collect responses from 209 students who attended lectures. The measured sound levels ranged from LAeq 55.20 to 73.55 dB. The corresponding values of loudness ranged from 2.78 to 12.5 sones and fluctuation strengths ranged from 1.17 to 2.33 vacils. Students indicated that anthropogenic sounds such as people shouting, playing, and talking were quite frequent and unpleasant. The results of structural equation modelling showed that classroom acoustical environments with lower sound levels, loudness, and fluctuation strengths would positively influence acoustical perceptions, encompassing acoustical comfort, acoustical calmness, acoustical satisfaction, and hearing of natural sounds while students’ favourable acoustical perceptions promoted their learning attitude. The findings of the study confirmed that anthropogenic sounds negatively affected students’ learning attitude in the higher education context.
Keywords: Anthropogenic sounds
Learning attitude
Learning motivation
Natural sounds
Structural equation model
Publisher: International Journal of Instruction
Journal: International journal of instruction 
ISSN: 1694-609X
EISSN: 1308-1470
DOI: 10.29333/iji.2021.14320a
Rights: Content is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial-NoDerivative License (CC BY NC ND) (
The following publication Chan, Y. N., Choy, Y. S., To, W. M., & Lai, T. M. (2021). Influence of Classroom Soundscape on Learning Attitude. International Journal of Instruction, 14(3), 341-358 is available at
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