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Title: Impacts of stroke on muscle perceptions and relationships with the motor and functional performance of the lower extremities
Authors: Liu, WJ
Lin, LF
Chiang, SL
Lu, LH
Chen, CY 
Lin, CH
Issue Date: Jul-2021
Source: Sensors, July 2021, v. 21, no. 14, 4740
Abstract: Stroke results in paretic limb disabilities, but few studies have investigated the impacts of stroke on muscle perception deficits in multiaxis movements and related functional changes. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate stroke-related changes in muscle perceptions using a multiaxis ankle haptic interface and analyze their relationships with various functions. Sixteen stroke patients and 22 healthy participants performed active reproduction tests in multiaxis movements involving the tibialis anterior (TA), extensor digitorum longus (EDL), peroneus longus, and flexor digitorum longus (FDL) of the ankle joint. The direction error (DE), absolute error (AE), and variable error (VE) were calculated. The lower extremity of Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA-LE), Barthel Index (BI), Postural Assessment Scale for Stroke Patients, Tinetti Performance-Oriented Mobility Assessment (POMA), and 10-m walk test (10MWT) were evaluated. VE of EDL for the paretic ankle was significantly lower than that for the nonparetic ankle (p = 0.009). AE of TA, EDL, and FDL and VE of EDL and FDL of muscle perceptions were significantly lower in healthy participants than in stroke patients (p < 0.05 for both). DE of TA for the paretic ankle was moderately correlated with FMA-LE (r = −0.509) and POMA (r = −0.619) scores. AE and VE of EDL for the paretic ankle were moderately correlated with the 10MWT score (r = 0.515 vs. 0.557). AE of FDL for the paretic ankle was also moderately correlated with BI (r = −0.562). This study indicated poorer accuracy and consistency in muscle perception for paretic ankles, which correlated with lower limb functions of stroke patients.
Keywords: Ankle
Functional performance
Muscle perception
Muscle weakness
Publisher: Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI)
Journal: Sensors 
EISSN: 1424-8220
DOI: 10.3390/s21144740
Rights: © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative CommonsAttribution (CC BY) license (
The following publication Liu, W.-J.; Lin, L.-F.; Chiang, S.-L.; Lu, L.-H.; Chen, C.-Y.; Lin, C.-H. Impacts of Stroke on Muscle Perceptions and Relationships with the Motor and Functional Performance of the Lower Extremities.Sensors 2021, 21, 4740 is available at
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