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Title: Spatial clustering and genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolate among pulmonary tuberculosis suspected patients, Arsi Zone, Ethiopia
Authors: Tafess, K
Beyen, TK
Girma, S
Girma, A
Siu, G 
Issue Date: 2021
Source: BMC pulmonary medicine, 2021, v. 21, 206
Abstract: Background: Tuberculosis remains a serious public health concern globally. The enormous social, economic, and health impacts of the diseases are attributed to the lack of updated data on the prevalence, geospatial distribution, population structures, and genotypic variants of the circulating M. tuberculosis.
Methods: Structured questionnaire, mycobacterial culture, and standard 24-Mycobacterial Interspersed Repeated Units-Variable Number Tandem Repeats (MIRU-VNTR) were employed to collect sociodemographic characters, residence linked information, and genotype the isolates. The retrospective discrete Bernoulli model was used to identify the hot spot districts of sputum smear positivity, and Web-based Miru-VNTRPlus were used for the identification of lineages and sublineages.
Results: Out of 832 presumptive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) suspects, 119 (14.3%) were smear-positive. In the multivariate binary logistic model, PTB suspected patients in the age groups of 7–25 and 25–34 and those from rural residents were 4.53 (AOR = 4.53; 95% CI 2.25–9.13), 3.00 (AOR = 3.00; 95% CI 1.41–6.35) and 1.65 (AOR = 1.65; 95% CI 1.01–2.70) times at higher risk of turning smear-positive. Eleven (47.8%) districts of Arsi Zone were shown to have a high rate of clustering (RR = 2.27; 95% CI 1.62–3.2) of smear-positive PTB. Of 72 isolates queried for the lineage assignment, 59 (81.9%) were classified into the previously known lineages and 13 (18.1%) were not assigned to any known lineages. Overall, 42 (58.3%) belong to M. tuberculosis lineage 4 (Euro-American), 16 (22.2%) M. tuberculosis lineage 3 (Delhi/CAS), and 1 (1.4%) M. tuberculosis Lineage 1 (Indo-Oceanic/ East Africa Indian). Further classification to the sublineage indicates that the predominant lineage was Delhi/CAS comprising 16 (22.2%) isolates followed by 15 (20.8%) isolates belonging to Haarlem. The remaining isolates were distributed as 13 (18.1%) TUR, 6 (8.3%) LAM, 4 (5.5%) URAL, 4 (4.5%) NEW-1 and 1 (1.4%) EAI.
Conclusion: Our study showed higher smear-positive results among PTB suspected patients and remarkable spatial variation across districts of Arsi Zone in smear-positive PTB. This information together with the genotypic features could be used as input for the efforts of designing control strategies.
Keywords: Genotyping
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Spatial clustering
Publisher: BioMed Central
Journal: BMC pulmonary medicine 
EISSN: 1471-2466
DOI: 10.1186/s12890-021-01567-7
Rights: © The Author(s) 2021. Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativeco applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.
The following publication Tafess, K., Beyen, T.K., Girma, S. et al. Spatial clustering and genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolate among pulmonary tuberculosis suspected patients, Arsi Zone, Ethiopia. BMC Pulm Med 21, 206 (2021) is available at
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